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Title: TBA. Title: "Differential expression analysis for single-cell RNA-sequencing data. Title: "How not to waste your data: building a single-cell RNA-seq analysis pipeline. Contact: Lars Feuerbach. The Course will introduce students to the computational infrastructure at the DKFZ, and teach the essential skills required for internships, thesis projects or student assistant jobs in one of the institutes bioinformatics groups. Successful participation will be awarded with 3 credit points and considered favorably in the application process to any of these.

Funktionelle und Strukturelle Genomforschung. Im Vergleich dazu gaben z. Letzte Stellung im Beruf vor Eintritt in den Leistungsbezug. Eine weitere Personengruppe scheint den ELB vor allem aufgrund von Informationsdefiziten besonders wenig genutzt zu haben. Er kann deshalb auch nicht vorrangig als Problem falscher sozialrechtlicher Anreizwirkungen und insbesondere der negativen Arbeitsanreize des ELB selbst angesehen werden. Das Programm ist richtungsweisend, weil es auf innovative, individuell passgenaue und die gesundheitlichen und psycho-sozialen Probleme der Betroffenen einbeziehende Integrationsstrategien setzt und zugleich ein Schwergewicht auf die Ansprache und enge Zusammenarbeit mit den potentiell einstellenden Betrieben legt.

In order to benefit from this scheme, they simply had to declare that they did not want to take up work anymore and were thus exempt from the obligation to seek employment. The exemption of this group from a fundamental principle of labour market policy—the strict linkage between entitlement to benefits and willingness to work—evinces important tensions between political aims and social realities: on the one hand, early retirement should be restricted to realise the labour force potential of elderly workers, thereby stabilising the social security system and reducing dependencies and social exclusion in old-age.

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On the other hand, the reintegration of older unemployed individuals brings about considerable problems that all too often make their activation appear unprofitable from the efficiency perspective—by contrast, early retirement reduces visible unemployment as well as the amount of work imposed on employment agencies.

In the light of the political goal of an increased labour market participation of older workers this paper deals with the reasons why the majority of older unemployed individuals left the labour force by making use of the FRB. The validity of this study is affected by a methodical problem: The survey data about the motivation for choosing the FRB were collected retrospectively, which is why the respondents might have attempted to rationalise their decision ex post.

For this reason the real motives might be disguised in many cases. Given that survey questions concerning the willingness to work and job search activities are considered sensitive, a social desirability bias must be taken into account. However, as FRB payment recipients are legally entitled to cease seeking employment, they can more likely be expected to reveal a lack of propensity to work. The findings of a supplementary study support this assumption: the self-reported motives can be supposed to draw a sufficiently realistic picture of why older long-term unemployed persons withdraw from the labour market.

The paper focuses on two possible interpretations coming from microeconomic and socio-psychological approaches. From a microeconomic perspective early retirement is regarded as the result of a utility-maximising labour supply decision: the older unemployed individual opts for leisure time and against gainful employment chiefly because of the disincentives of the social security system.

Sektionstagung „Heterogenität des Alter(n)s“

By contrast, theories and empirical findings concerning the psycho-social effects of long-term unemployment suggest that—regardless of monetary incentives to work—the majority of older benefit recipients has a strong intrinsic commitment to gainful employment even after a long period of unemployment. They retire with feelings of resignation in order to remedy the motivational incongruence between their willingness to work and the lack of employment opportunities. The empirical analysis based on a survey of recipients of Unemployment Benefit II shows that the main reason for retirement of the older long-term unemployed was not a lack of motivation to accept gainful employment.

Only about one-eighth of the interviewees explicitly stated unwillingness to work as a reason for their choice to retire. A further quarter displayed only a very limited willingness to work: this group primarily opted for the FRB because they would accept only certain jobs, did not want to apply repeatedly for jobs or participate in employment and training programmes. In contrast, the majority of the interviewed recipients of the FRB wanted to re-enter gainful employment. Multivariate regression analysis shows that this is in particular true for those who expect insufficient funds in old-age.

It is thus not primarily a result of individual utility maximisation by implementing a preference for leisure time over gainful employment when long-term unemployed opt for early retirement. Therefore, this behaviour cannot be seen primarily as a consequence of the disincentives of the social security system and of the FRB in particular. Instead, the most important reason for the exit of older unemployed persons from the labour force can be found in their lack of employment prospects: more than 60 per cent of those participating in the FRB declared their inability to cope with the challenges of a job due to poor health or other impediments, stated that they did not have any labour market opportunities or claimed that the respective agency could not provide sufficient help and support.

Especially for East German men, but first and foremost for women in East Germany, the lack of job prospects as well as little trust in the willingness and ability of the public employment service to provide effective assistance played a dominating role in the decision to retire. Consequently, improved support and appropriate employment opportunities can be expected to foster more effectively activation and integration of the older long-term unemployed than pressure alone. Paul et al. Lebensjahr eine Altersrente beziehen konnten, ist zu erwarten, dass mit zunehmendem Alter der Anteil von arbeitsbereiten Personen im Leistungsbezug wuchs, weil ruhestandsorientierte Personen in Rente wechselten.

Dieses Ergebnis stimmt mit dem Befund von P. Jackson und P. Taylor , S. Yollu-Tok , S. Endbericht, Dezember Ein entsprechendes Fazit ziehen auch G.

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Mohr und P. Richter , S. Zu einer kritischen Bewertung dieser Form der Aktivierungspolitik gelangen ebenfalls P. Bescherer, S. Schierhorn , S. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.

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Article First Online: 18 September Older unemployed persons at the crossroads between working life and retirement: their motives for leaving the labour force. Als Folge der Arbeitsmarktreform ist die Untersuchungsgruppe sehr heterogen und umfasst Personen, die aus unterschiedlichen Systemen der sozialen Sicherung in den Arbeitslosengeld-II-Bezug gewechselt sind.

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