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It was, however, by more devious channels than the legitimate stage that the lanni eventually triumphed liere. By the middle of the seventeenth cen- tury he was established in France as PoHchinelle, in his familiar role of stooge to a quack doctor, but quite lacking any of tPie grotesque physiog- nomy that we should expect to-day.

But here in France another influence was at work; there had, it would seem, long been a folk tradition of hunchbacked fools in the French popular farces and merrymaking, and in some way this humpback became fathered upon PoHchinelle. The rough Italian peasant was developed into something more fantastic and Gallic. By he can be found in prints in the shape so familiar to modern eyes.

This is the character depicted by Watteau, by Lancret, and by Meissonier. In due course the French PoHchinelle returned to Italy, and had some influence upon his native originator; in Venice, in particular, Pulcinella became generally hunchbacked and wore a tall, round rigid hat — like a deep inverted flower-pot — instead of a pointed floppy one. This is the Pulcinella as drawn by Tiepolo. We do not know whether Pulcinella came to England with the Fiorilli troupe in , when they were loaded with gold and silver plate and returned to play daily in the palace at Whitehall as if it was a pubUc theatre.

But if he did he would have found himself not unknown to London society, for his reputation and his mask had gone before him. Punchinello the puppet had already staked a prior claim upon our hearts. This definition excludes dolls on the one hand and automata on the other, but it is sufiiciently wide to include a large variety of figures and methods of manipulation. A simple classification is into Flat Figures and Round Figures. Flat figures may be moved from the side, like the characters in an English Toy Theatre; or their limbs can be actuated into a semblance of spasmodic jerkings by strings pulled from below, like the toy called a Pantin, or Jumping Jack, that was quite a craze in England in the mid-eighteenth century.

Flat figures can also be held between a strong light and a translucent screen, and thus become Shadow Figures; these can be pushed on from the side, or moved by rods held horizontally like the shadow puppets of the Karageuz Theatre in Greece and Turkey, or by rods held vertically from below, like the shadow puppets of Java and Bali, or by strings from below, like the Ombres Chinoises of eighteenth-century France and the Galanty Show of nineteenth-century England. Shadow puppets can be made of opaque materials, to give a black-and-white effect, like the shadow shows of Java and the Ombres Chinoises; or of translucent materials, to give coloured shadows, like those of China and Greece.

Round figures can be operated either from above or from below. If moved from below with rods to the body and hands they are known as Rod Puppets, and this is a type traditional to both Java and the Rhine- land. If made smaller, with a hollow cloth body to fit over a man's hand and articulated by his fingers, they are called Hand or Glove Puppets, and this type is found all over Europe, and also in China.

There are numerous combinations of hand and rod puppets. A complete figure with articulated limbs, moved from above, is a Marionette. These were originally controlled by one rod or stout wire to the head, with perhaps strings to the hands and feet. Within the last hundred years or so the general method of manipulating marionettes has come to be by strings alone, and a high degree of naturalism and perfection has been obtained.

This does not completely exhaust all the types of puppet. There are the Japanese Puppets, each carried by a man in full view of the audience, and manipulated by sometimes two or three assistants, with strings and levers in its back, like a ventriloquist's dummy; there are Jigging Puppets, or Marionnettes a la Planchette, made to dance on the ground by a cord running through their breasts from the showman's knee to a vertical post; there are Finger Puppets, in which the showman's two fingers are the puppet's two legs; and there are Living Marionettes, in which the puppet's body, worked by rods from behind, hangs from the head of a human manipulator.

In this book I shall write often of 'puppets,' and when I do so it means that the exact type is not clearly known, or that I am referring in general to all types. Whenever possible, however, I shall specify the type of puppet with which I am dealing. In their long history, and in the many countries in which these little figures have played their interpretation of drama, first one type and then another has risen to popularity; no one type can be described as better than the others, but each has its own indivi- dual characteristics, and for each there is a certain type of suitable drama- tic material.

The shadow figure, for instance, can convey an atmosphere of magic and mystery, or represent a scene pictorially, though it is by no means confined to such themes; the rod puppet can appear without any incongruity in exalted themes of epic poetry and drama, thanks to the sure control of its wide, eloquent gestures; the glove puppet is a natural at knock-about farce, quick, witty dialogue, and at bringing in ' audience participation'; the marionette is the most human of all puppets, the nearest to life, but there is a danger of sterile naturalism in its present perfection, and the marionette really finds its mark with the slight exaggerations and wicked caricatures that lie- so easily within its grasp.


Possibly both these elements played their part before finally coalescing in a professional popular entertainment, but on the analogy of the human theatre we must expect to trace a more probable descent from the religious derivation. The women in their village festivals used to carry with them an image of the god of fertility about twenty inches high, fitted with a phallus of nearly the same length that could be erected by strings. There could be no more elemental or fundamentally right beginning for our story.

There are records of other Egyptian statues that turned their heads or gestured with their hands at the right moment; no doubt strings were led through their bodies to the touch of an adroit priestly manipulator. These moving images can be paralleled all over the world, in pagan and Christian countries, but our interest in the puppet lies with its dramatic use; we cannot be sure how far these jointed idols lent themselves to any theatrical purpose.

Among the numerous wall-paintings that have been preserved illustrating almost every feature of Egyptian life there does not seem to be a single illustration of any kind of puppet show. We should note the existence of the puppet in ancient Egypt, but may be sceptical of the existence of a puppet theatre. When we move to the Greek civilization there are definite indications not only of the existence of moving statues and of highly elaborate automata, but of the use of puppets as a form of dramatic entertainment.

A frequently misquoted but extremely interesting reference is found in the Symposium of Xenophon. It was at the close of the greater Panathenaic games, and the city was crowded with the competi- tors and their followers; no doubt entertainers of all kinds had made their way to Athens for the festival. The banquet was given by Callias, a wealthy dilettante, to a brilliant company of guests, including Socrates, and the host had hired a man from Syracuse to give them an evening's entertainment.

His troupe consisted of a girl who played the flute, an acrobatic dancing-girl, and a handsome boy who danced and played the cither; they also performed a mime in which Ariadne, dressed as a bride, waited for Dionysus, who came in to her and loved her, carrying her off to the bridal couch. We are told that this was performed with great beauty and expressiveness, and at the conclusion "those who were un- wedded swore that they would take to themselves wives, and those who PUPPETS IN EUROPE 25 were already married mounted horse and rode off to their wives that they might enjoy them.

For they give me a livelihood by coming to view my puppets. But even if this is admitted the use of such a metaphor clearly shows that puppets were an accepted form of entertainment at this time. It is, however, far more probable that the phrase can be given its literal meaning, and that in this Sicilian enter- tainer, with his troupe of musicians, acrobats, dancers, and puppets, we see the first recorded puppet showman in history.

No doubt the human performers were considered more appropriate to an intellectual dinner- party, and the puppets were reserved for the amusement of the common populace. Six hundred years later Athenseus recorded that " the Athenians yielded to Potheinos the puppet player the very stage on which Euripides and his contemporaries performed their inspired plays. During this period of dramatic decadence the theatre at Athens was used even for exhibitions by conjurors and sword-swallowers, but Potheinos must have been a well-known and successful entertainer to have been able to present a performance in that vast amphitheatre.

He is, too, the earliest named puppeteer in history! With this one tantalizing exception, there is not a single description of a definite puppet performance in the whole corpus of Greek and Roman literature. But puppets were certainly known, and there is no lack of literary and metaphorical references, comparing man to the marionette.

For instance, Horace, in 30 B. But the simile between man and puppet is so easy — not least in our own days of puppet emperors and puppet dictators — that there is a considerable danger of our treating these purely literary metaphors as strictly technical descriptions. Cleverly constructed marionettes must have been fairly common, for there are regular references to them from B. Aulus Gellius, for instance, in about a. It is possible that some of them may be relics of home puppet theatres, but their operation is always extremely crude, and there is certainly no suggestion of the nodding heads and rolling eyes described by Apuleius.

These little figures may have been inspired by the wooden marionettes of professional entertainers, but they hardly ever copy contemporary theatrical characters, and for the most part they are probably no more than jointed dolls. It is quite clear from the passages already quoted that stringed mario- nettes were a familiar form of puppet in classical times. The usual Greek word for puppet, neurospastos, is derived from neuron, which means a cord made of sinew, and this — quite apart from the many metaphorical references to puppets on their strings — clearly proves that marionettes were the standard form of puppet in this period.

The probability is that the main weight of the figure was supported by a stout wire to the head, and a few of the jointed doll figures that have survived still retain a short length of rod rising from the tops of their heads. There is an indication, however, that glove puppets were also known in ancient Greece, probably before B.

We know, therefore, that puppets were used in Greece for entertain- ment some five hundred years before the birth of Christ, and possibly much earlier; that their use had spread to Sicily at an early date; and that they became firmly established in Italy during the Roman power. We know the kinds of puppets that were used. But we know nothing what- ever about the kinds of plays, if any, in which they performed. They may never have acquired a truly dramatic character at all, and have con- tented themselves with what they have always done very well — music-hall and variety tricks.

But the line between the circus and the stage is not always easily drawn: we have seen how the acrobatic dancers of the Syracusan could also perform a mime with an exquisite histrionic art, and it is difficult to believe that the Syracusan's puppets could not also turn at will to drama or comedy. The Greek theatre with its masked actors on stilt-like boots was one-half a puppet theatre already, and few forms of drama lend themselves more readily to the stilted dignity of puppet actors than does the Greek.

Whether the tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides were ever performed by the neurospasta we do not know, and it would be rash to guess. But it is certain that wherever puppets have flourished in their long history they have always fastened on the popular un-literary drama as their especial province; and we may feel quite sure that in the puppet shows of Greece and Rome the crudely comic characters of the Dorian, the Phylax, and the Atellan Farces had their place — the fat cook, the learned doctor, the comic slave, the "cock fighter," the glutton, and the hunchback.

Medieval Puppets: The Minstrels Among the mimes and actors who were driven by the invading Goths from their comfortable if decadent employment in the circuses of Imperial Rome there went the puppet men. Here and there there must have been private houses that welcomed these showmen to play for a party, and in the villages the old shows must still have been enjoyed, but the official world in the towns was unsympathetic.

The puppets, however, seem to have escaped, for the most part, direct attack, but whether this was because their entertainments were innocuous or beneath contempt we can hardly decide. From some eight centuries, from a. The traditions of the mimes, with their mimicry and circus tricks, were gradually absorbed into that of the bard, with his staider recitations of epic poems, and by the tenth century we begin to see the emergence of the great army of minstrels, gleemen, jongleurs, and trobadors who flocked to every Court in Europe and followed in the retinue of every baron, with their old ballads and new love songs, their tricks, and — sometimes — their puppets.

Not all the minstrels followed the Court: there were some, we are told, who hung around taverns and village greens, strumming at some instru- ment, singing coarse songs, imitating birds' cries, and showing off the tricks of learned dogs. Such a one must have been the Perrinet Sanson, whose name a chance reference has preserved for us, who gathered his audience in a French village with a drum and trumpet to see the perfor- mance of his company — his wife and children, a bear, a horse, a nanny- goat, and his puppets.

In the early-thirteenth-century Proven9al romance Flamenca there is a description of a great feast given on St John's Day at Bourbon, in the Auvergne, in honour of the King and Queen of France. After High Mass the whole company of many thou- sand knights and ladies, with their servants, sat down to a banquet in the great hall. After the meal was finished they washed their hands for they had been eating with their fingers , the cloths were taken away, wine was brought, and silk-covered cushions for them to lean against, and then : Up stood each jongleur in the hall And bent to make his music call A note more sweet, a key more mellow.

Than from the instrument of his fellow. Here did a minstrel sing his lay, While one upon the harp did play, And one upon the fife, or flute. One on the rote, one on the lute; And some recited, or made merry. To the accompanying psaltery. Or to the whistle, or the bagpipe. The musette, Jew's Harp, or the panpipe. Here one that made the puppets play, Or gave a juggling knife display. One somersaulted on the ground. Another capered in a round. Then the company danced, with all the two hundred jongleurs to play the music; and in the afternoon a joust was held by the knights on horse- back, while the ladies watched from the windows; and after vespers had been sung by all the company in church they took supper and went tired to bed.

It is clear that these are actually jigging puppets, and probably this is more of a domestic game than any kind of dramatic entertainment, but as we have clear evidence of the existence of this kind of simple puppet we must always consider the possibility that the bastaxii so popular among the minstrels were often of this type. In one a puppet with a club seems to be threatening a woman; in the other two knights are fighting with swords, while two other puppets look on.

The booths are of the familiar pattern, with drapery concealing the operator, or operators, for in the second case it would require two men to put four figures into movement. There is, however. At the two front corners of each booth there are a pair of embattled turrets, projecting slightly forward; in one illustration a castellated edge is carried right across the stage to connect the two tur- rets.

There is no other indication of scenery. Now, the name for this kind of glove-puppet booth is in Italian castello, in Spanish Castillo, and in French castellet, meaning a castle, and it is reasonable to suppose that these portable booths, the most suitable type of theatre for a travelling showman, were regularly made in the likeness of a castle, with ramparts and battlements above which the puppets could very naturally appear from the waist upward.

It is very probable that marionettes were still known throughout this period, but it is difficult to find any clear evidence of their survival, and the easy similarities between man and marionette, so common among the early Christian philosophers, seem to be singularly absent from the writings of medieval authors. In general it can be said that the marionette, requiring a fairly bulky and permanent type of stage, comes into promi- nence during periods of material prosperity, but that the glove and other more portable types of puppet tend to displace it in times of social unrest, when entertainers are forced into a vagabond life.

There is, however, an interesting remark in a Provencal romance of 1 3 1 8 which gives us a clue : the hero was set upon by twelve robbers, and in the terrible combat that followed he strikes the head of one robber from off his shoulders, and it flies through the air to strike another robber in the face and kill him. In the same way do the puppets slay each other by knocking together. It is indeed difficult to believe that the author had not seen some such combats in the puppet theatres of his day. It is clear that the puppet plays made a feature of great combats, and in the age of chivalry, in a booth that was made to look like a castle, what would be more natural?

We have seen the part that jointed and articulated images played in the temples of Egypt and ancient Greece, and these homely mysteries were to be repeated in due course in Christian churches. It was not, however, until the end of the eighth century that the Christian Church in the West began to permit the use of the fully sculptured crucifix.

The early centuries of persecution had forced upon Christians the secret use of such symbols as the fish and the lamb, but as it became more and more important to present a simple popular exposition of the Faith the arts of painting, sculpture, and even "moving sculpture" were all harnessed to the service of religion. One of the most famous of these medieval "puppet images" was the Rood of Grace at Boxley, in Kent, where a crucifix was preserved that was said to have been made, probably in the' fifteenth century, by an English carpenter during imprisonment in France.

The figure was evidently jointed so that it could move its limbs, and it is even reported that the eyes did "move and stare in the head like unto a living thing, and also the nether lip likewise to move, as though it would speak. And now was heard a tremendous shout- ing; he is snatched, torn, broken in pieces, bit by bit, split up into a thou- sand fragments and at last thrown into the fire; and thus was an end of him. Several examples of these are still intact and in working order to-day — at Wells Cathedral, for instance, and at Strasbourg, and there is a pleasing reproduc- tion in the Horniman Museum.

Interesting though these examples of puppet figures may be, they do not in any way con- stitute a puppet theatre. It is tempting to think that some of these jointed statues may have presented short excerpts from the Scriptures, and thus have opened the churches to the great surge of religious drama that swept through medieval Europe, but there is no evidence what- ever to suggest that the reli- gious mystery plays originated from any kind of puppets.

The Christmas Crib, for instance, as we can see it erected in many churches to-day, seems to have been derived from, rather than to have inspired, the human Nativity plays. There are, however, instances of plastic figures being used in a semi- dramatic manner to illustrate the liturgy. This custom goes back to the tenth century. The Ascension Day service, from the four- teenth century, sometimes showed an effigy of Christ being drawn up into the roof of the church through a ring of silk cloths to represent c Figure of Christ sitting on an Ass, designed to be drawn round the Church South German, sixteenth century, about half life-size.

Victoria and Albert Museum. Sometimes an effigy of the Devil was thrown down on to the ground at the same time. At the feast of the Assumption a recum- bent image of Our Lady was sometimes carried up to heaven, in the roof of the church, in the hands of angels. This particular ceremony was still practised in St Paul's Cathedral at the beginning of the sixteenth century. In none of these instances do the images actually possess movement of their own, and it is straining the sense of the word to describe them as puppets. But the use of these figures in a dramatic form, and the existence of jointed and articulated religious images, did eventually result in the actual representation of religious puppet plays in churches by the end of the Middle Ages.

In England and other Protestant countries the Reforma- tion dealt a death-blow to puppet plays in churches, though — as we shall see — secular puppet shows continued to present Biblical themes for many years to come. The essential development of liturgical religious drama was, however, by this time long past; and from onward religious plays had increasingly escaped from their liturgical origins and eccle- siastical settings into the free air of the cathedral steps and the streets.

As so often in our story, the puppets remained long after the actors had fled. But even in Catholic countries the puppet shows were soon to be expelled from all churches; the Reformation only hastened in England a sense of propriety that was spreading throughout all Europe. Puppets are, however, strangely suited to display the divine mysteries in roles where the human actor is all too conscious of his humanity. There is no doubt that religious drama can still to-day, as it has in the past, be interpreted with curiously moving effect by the hieratic gestures of the marionette.

Italian Puppets The first puppet showman of whom we have any record was a Sicilian, and right up to our own times the Italians have shown themselves supreme masters of this art. It is natural to suppose that the legacy of the Roman marionettes was carefully nurtured in the peninsula, but until an Italian scholar turns his attention to a subject that has already been carefully traced by French, German, English, and American historians the story of the puppets in Italy, the fount of all European puppetry, will remain to some extent a closed book. By the sixteenth century we begin to find written evidence of the popularity of puppets as a form of entertainment in Italy, and three distinct types are clearly differentiated.

The first of these are the jigging puppets, which had been illustrated four hundred years before, and which are now described as consisting of two dancers, whose movements were controlled by a single thread passing from the musician's leg to an upright post, and who danced most divertingly together to the sound of the bagpipes.

A hundred years later Francesco Saverio Quadrio, a learned Jesuit with a truly catholic curiosity about the world around him, wrote so fully and with so much practical detail and sympathetic interest of the various types of puppets that it seems worth while to translate his descrip- tions as fully as possible. The marionette theatre, he writes, should be a small stage, well lit above and below, in front of which is stretched a net of very fine thread, and within which the spectators will see the fantocci exit, enter, and walk as if they are living persons.

The puppets are extremely well made, with the head oi papier mdche, the bust and thighs of wood, the arms of cords, the hands and legs of lead, all well dressed in silken clothes, with shoes, hats, hoods, and other things usually seen on the persons of living beings.

Each of these puppets has attached to its head an iron rod, wherewith it is moved here and there by the operator, who controls and manages it without being seen, and who has four threads of silk, or of some other material, two fixed to its hands and two to its feet, whereby he causes the figure to walk, jump, gesticulate, dance, and make sounds, so that one would think one saw on the stage a law-court, a boarding school, a dance, or the playing of a violin sonata or a guitar, or such actions as are required, copying life to the life.

The net placed in front of the stage was to confuse the eyes of the spectators so that they did not notice the strings, or the very prominent rod, by which the marionettes were moved. The use of cord for arms, permitting all kinds of backward-bending joints, would be very much sneered at by modern puppeteers, but the evidence of men like Cardano and Quadrio should be sufficient proof that the Italian puppet showmen of the Renaissance were past-masters of their art in the manipulation of their figures.

An alternative type of puppet is described by Quadrio as follows: Let a high stage be arranged, such as is used in an ordinary theatre, pro- vided with scenes of the usual size. These figures are then to be moved from one end of the channel to the other, as required, by means of concealed counterweights, some of which hang by a wire attached to the shoulders of each figure, and are intended to serve the purpose of manipulating the figures and arranging them in various graceful and appropriate attitudes; these counterweights are worked by men hidden under the stage, or in some other convenient place.

This somewhat compHcated procedure was devised at the end of the seventeenth century by Bartolommeo Neri, a machinist and painter. The figures, from their weight, have to be counter- weighted by the wire from the head running up over a pulley-wheel, and ending in a weight behind the scenes. The figures keep in the space between the grooves in which the scenes run, and to appear nearer or farther from the audience would have to be shifted at the side round into the new opening.

This restriction prevents the wires which work them being entangled. They are worked from below or at the side. The front sink, the flap of scenery which crosses the front of the stage above, is made of network, to confuse the eye when seeking for the wires. These figures seem to have been some kind of rod puppet sliding in grooves, with the weight supported from above.

Ingenious though the installation may have been, it must have been difficult to portray the rough-and-tumble of a lively drama with such complicated apparatus, and its use must inevitably have been limited. These buratdni are described as rounded figures, fitting into the tips of the fingers of a man concealed in a castello covered with cloth. Their entertainment was sometimes rather coarse, but it was skilfully presented and told.

It is far more probable that this type of puppet derived its name from buratto, a coarse native woollen stuff from which its cos- tume, comprising the bulk of its body, was made; and that the buratdni were already well-known when one of the human actors in the improvised comedy was nicknamed Burattino on account of his small stature and vivacious movements. The earliest recorded use of this name applied to a human character is in With these Italian puppets we have, for the first time, some particulars of how they spoke. Paolo Manucci describes the buratdni as speaking "with a sort of whistle"; Quadrio provides a very full explanation of this : No less various are the methods by which the players make the voices of each sort of figure.

Those who are concealed in a castello of cloth. And usually one man recites the whole burletta, changing his voice according to the characters. In another type of little theatre a reader stands hidden behind the back- cloth, with a written text of the play before him. The speeches are marked in various colours to warn him when to change his voice; for instance, red signifies a female, turquoise a male, and green a comic voice.

The figures are moved by another man. In another method each operator speaks for the figure he is moving, and each one has apivetta in his mouth, either longer or smaller or more open or more closed, to produce the correct voice of the character he is playing; and this is done so cleverly that i the fantoccio had a voice of its own it could not be more natural. The pivetta was some kind of tube concealed in the mouth, and we shall find an opportunity later in this volume to examine its structure more closely; its effect is to produce a piercing cry that attracts people to the show, and at the same time to provide a certain un-human timbre for the voice of the puppet.

After so many centuries of vague hints and accidental allusions we have at last reached, with these descriptions of Quadrio, a clear know- ledge of the construction of Italian puppets. Of their high quality, too, and of their great popularity there seems to be little doubt. Quadrio admits that "this diversion fills the minds of the onlookers with cheerful- ness, and as a result is extremely dear to the people.

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Quadrio thought that "the farces, to tell the truth, are of small account," and yet he commends "the honourable conduct displayed in the speeches, and the suitability and moderation of the little fables treated. We cannot say who came first, the puppets or the actors. It may be significant that Pulcinella's name, perhaps derived from a chicken or a turkey, assumed a diminutive form. This may suggest that here, at least, the puppet preceded the actor. It is tempting to believe that the immortal characters of the Italian Comedy played their first parts on the stage of a puppet castello; but there is no real evidence to support such a claim; in history the function of the puppet seems to be to preserve rather than to originate dramatic types.

What is certain is that the rebirth of the Italian puppet theatre sprang from the same mimetic surge and instinct that threw up the Commedia dell' Arte, and that when the Italian Comedy was long dead and a matter only for the wrangles of historians the characters that it had inspired still stamped and squeaked their vigorous courses as actors of wood.

But if, as we shall see, the characters of the Commedia dell' Arte were preserved in the puppet shows long after they had disappeared from the human stages, is it not possible that the characters of the Atellan Farce were equally preserved in the puppet shows of the Dark and Middle Ages to provide at least the inspiration for the rebirth of the improvised comedy in Renaissance Italy. Polichinelle With the Italian actors who travelled across the Alps into France there went the Italian puppets.

We have seen that puppets were well-known in France from the displays of the medieval jongleurs, and by the end of the sixteenth century we learn from a contemporary allusion that "at the drolls, the mountebanks, and the puppets you would find Tabary, Jehan des Vignes, and Franc-a-Tripe, all hobbling, and the hunchbacked fool of the French, farce. With the arrival of Italian showmen, however, the French puppet show seems to have been lifted from the status of a fairground booth to that of a fashionable entertainment.

In Brioche and his son, who succeeded him in the business, were invited to the Court for some months to entertain the nine-year-old Dauphin. These puppet theatres of the market-places and of the fairs were not itinerant glove-puppet castellos set up in the open air, but covered booths, outside which players and animals performed to attract a crowd. A poem of , describing the fair of St Laurent, paints the picture well: Here in the street upon a stage Two shabby Harlequins engage The passers-by to pause and gape At the droll antics of their ape.

We pay our penny, and we go Inside to see the puppet show; But while, within, we wait and stand, We're pushed and elbowed, squeezed and jammed.

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  6. As stiff as pasteboard queens and kings, Until at last the play begins. Apparently no seats were provided for the audience, on the principle that two can stand in the space in which one can sit. By the middle of the seventeenth century references to puppet show- men and their performances begin to become frequent, and they were generally welcomed as an amusing idle diversion. Evelyn noted two puppet theatres in Paris at the residences of French aristocrats; they played in elegant little theatres in formal gardens, or at the commencement of fashionable balls.

    Many features of the Italian marionette theatres can also be traced in France. The fine net stretched in front of the stage is apparently referred to in some accounts of expenditure at Court in , when a tinsmith was paid over thirteen livres for "iron wire which he fixed in front of the [puppet] theatre, 12 tin reflectors, and 6 small candlesticks for taking the lights. We have already seen that Francatrippa had insinuated his way on to the French puppet stage by , but he was soon to be ousted by another character even more grotesque, whose humpback, pigeon chest, and hook nose marked him out as a ready model for the woodcarver's chisel.

    In Italy Pulcinella may have been only one among many puppets, but in France, in the early years of the seventeenth century, he assumed, for the first time in all their glory, the fantastic shapes that we know to-day, and was hailed as Polichinelle, the chief hero of the marionette stage. By the Polichinelle of Brioche was so well-known that his name was adopted as the author of a political broadsheet addressed to his fellow-countryman Cardinal Mazarin. I have been received like a noble citizen in Paris, while you, on the contrary, have been chased like a louse out of church.

    A few years later, in what may be only an imaginary anecdote, Brioche is described as setting out on tour "with his little wooden yEsop, twist- ing, twirling, turning, dancing, laughing, and talking — this eccentric grotesque, this ludicrous hunchback, named Polichinelle. His com- panion was called Voisin. With their beaus in clean starched shirts For laundry-girls are dreadful flirts.

    Are come to see, for little pay, The showing of a puppet play. In the granary there was seen The savage Rape of Proserpine, With changing scenery as well. And there the famed Polichinelle, The hero of these little plays. It is not entirely clear to what extent Polichinelle is merely Pulcinella under a French name. We have seen that a hunchback was a traditional figure of French farce before Pulcinella ever came from Italy, and we have also seen how the physical appearance, and probably the character, of the Polichinelle of differed from the Neapolitan peasant of the original Commedia dell' Arte.

    Charles Magnin, the erudite French puppet historian, goes so far as to claim that, "despite his Neapolitan name, Polichinelle seems to me an entirely national type, and one of the most spontaneous and vivacious creations of French fantasy. It must be emphasized that, except in Naples, the Italian Pulcinella was only a minor character among the human personaggi, and if he ever generally headed the cast it can only have been in the puppet theatres.

    We do not find records of human Polichinelles of any great importance before the Hotel de Bourgogne engraving of — and even here he is only a minor character in the background. But Polichinelle the puppet was already a byword by The human Polichinelle seems to be derived rather from the French marionette than from the Neapolitan peasant. After the expulsion of the Italian players in the puppets remained as the only representatives of Italian Comedy in France.

    For the purposes of this history we have now traced in parallel paths the story of the popular theatre and of the puppet theatre from the dawn of European civilization to the seventeenth century; and we have seen how the Italian puppets, in a reincarnation of the traditions of Greece and Rome, travelled across Europe, giving new life to the puppet stages where they passed, with Pulcinella the hero of their booths. Now only the English Channel lay before him. It is directly derived from the larger picture of the European puppet stage and the European popular theatre, which we have already traced; and it is also part and parcel of the English popu- lar drama, of pantomimes and drolls, clowns and jesters.

    Before following the detailed story of puppet shows in England we must first establish their relationship with the English clown and the English fool. He represented the safety-valve in feudal society, the simpleton who could answer back to bishop and king, the fool with licence to poke fun at anyone, the instigator of coarse practical jokes. But the wit of the lunatic must always have been an uncertain factor, and before long there grew up alongside these "natural fools" the profession of "artificial fool," or private jester.

    These were sane men, often recruited from the ranks of the minstrels, who paid for their keep with their wit. The jesters were the intimates of kings and princes, sharing their tables and painted with their families; cities and corporations maintained their own fools; taverns and brothels provided clowns to entertain the cus- tomers.

    If their jokes were too dull they were in danger of dismissal, but if they were too pointed they were in danger of a whipping. It must have been an attractive but an uncertain profession. It had its own uniform. This was not worn every day, but only for masques or ceremonial occasions, but its general features have been well recorded and are very familiar. The coat and hose were motley or parti- coloured, often in red, green or blue, and yellow; the head was covered by a hood, like a monk's cowl, sometimes decorated with ass's ears, and THE ENGLISH CLOWN 45 sometimes with the head or the comb of a cock; bells jangled from the skirts and elbows of the coat, and from the peak of the hood, which was often drawn up to a point and curled forward.

    The jester carried in his hand a mock sceptre, or bauble, which was a short stick decorated at the end with a fool's head; to this was sometimes attached an inflated bladder, with which he could deal out mock blows. An alternative fool's dress was a long petticoat, sometimes with a fox-tail, a calf-skin, or feathers. The elements of this costume, which was worn universally throughout Western Europe, probably date back to Roman times. We have already met the use of feathers and the "cock" type; the eared hood is recorded during the Roman Empire; the "fool's cap" is in essence the Phrygian cap, or pilos, worn in the Phylax and Atellan Farces; motley seems to have been the traditional wear of Roman mimes.

    The practice of keeping a private fool outlived the Middle Ages, and reached its glory in the Renaissance; it died out only in the seventeenth century. When the divine right of kings was questioned freely by Parlia- ments there was no need for a licensed jester to remind monarchs of their humanity; the Court fool was the first victim of democracy. But society still needed a jester to point a finger of scorn at current abuses, a wit licensed to fool at the mighty in their seats, a clown excused — like the Lord of Misrule — from the Ten Commandments.

    The people could not house their fool at home, but they kept him for their satisfaction and their delight in the theatre. The Vice Buffoonery had very soon crept into the religious plays, and the ecclesi- astical authorities, finding themselves unable to curb it, finally expelled the entire drama from the churches.

    The shepherds were shown as country bumpkins, Noah's wife as a shrew, Herod raged like the villain of a melodrama, and the grotesque Devils slipped across the border from horror into farce as they dragged the sinners into the smoking jaws of Hell. It was the particular genius of the Gothic spirit to bind these gross ingredients with the sincere representation of a religious epic. By the fifteenth century the simple playing of Biblical stories began to be succeeded by plays still religious, or at least moral, in tone, in which the characters represented personifications of human virtues and vices; these were the moralities.

    These didactic compositions needed light relief even more than the scriptural episodes, and this necessary duty seems to have devolved upon the chief of the vicious characters, who came to be known, from the actors' description, as the Vice. He was quarrelsome, a braggart, and always getting into fights, but often a coward as well. Something of the private jester seems to have been absorbed into the performance, too, for he could play the fool or the idiot at times. Little of the savour of these performances can be recaptured to-day from the printed texts, which must be numbered among the least approachable relics of our national drama.

    One of these was backchat with the audience: How say you, woman. Other tricks were to speak in nonsensical or meaning- less gabbles, to weep loudly and grotesquely in sorrow, and to delight in perversions and pretended misunderstandings. All hail, O noble prince of hell! All my dame's cows' tails fell down in the well. I will exalt thee above the clouds.

    I will salt thee and hang thee in the shrouds. Thou art the enhancer of my renown. Thou art Hance, the hangman of Calais town. And so on. At the end of this play the Vice was carried off by the Devil to eternal damnation, but it was doubtful whether even this prospect subdued him, for he made his exit riding on the Devil's back as if it was a horse. This piece of comic business made a great impression on Samuel Harsnett, who recalled in how it was a pretty part in the old church plays, when the nimble Vice would skip up like a jack-on-apes onto the devil's neck and ride the devil a course, and belabour him with his wooden dagger, till he made him roar, whereat the people would laugh to see the devil so vice-haunted.

    Often he carried a wooden sword, the "dagger of lath" already referred to. Sometimes he may have been hunchbacked, for a clown once exclaims, " Such a deformed slave did I never see. The Vice lingered on, shorn of his moral qualities, as a mere buffoon, the stage clown of the Elizabethan theatre. The Elizabethan Clown And let those that play your clowns speak no more than is set down for them; for there be of them that will themselves laugh, to set on some quantity of barren spectators to laugh too; though, in the mean time, some necessary question of the play be then to be considered : that's villainous, and shows a most pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it.

    Thus Hamlet in , and there can be little doubt that here Shake- speare speaks from his heart. The clown needed no dramatic connexion with the plot of the story, but was dragged in quite irrelevantly to amuse the groundlings. Sir Philip Sidney complained that the dramas mingled kings and clowns "not because the matter so carrieth it, but thrust in the clown by head and shoulders to play a part in majestical matters, with neither decency nor discretion.

    The business of the Elizabethan stage clown was not written down, and once again we can only reconstruct it from hints and allusions. The Pilgrimage to Parnassus of about gives a good description: "Why, if thou canst but draw thy mouth awry, lay thy leg over thy staff, saw a piece of cheese asunder with thy dagger, lap up drink on the earth, I warrant thee they'll laugh mightily. In character the stage clown was a lover of ease, food, and drink, and a hater of hard work; he was sometimes dishonest and a thief; he was fond of practical jokes, but was frequently duped; a coward and a braggart, 46 THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PUPPET THEATRE he seldom stood up to a serious fight- he spoke either in the rude and vigorous vernacular or in extravagant and absurd declamations, especially when in love, but when married he was plagued with a shrewish wife; he was always indulging in horseplay, acrobatic tricks, rough-and-tumble fighting, and crude buffoonery; he could mime laughter, terror, or drunkenness; sometimes he would let his voice be heard off the stage before making an appearance, and then show only his head between the curtains, while, we are told, the audience roared with laughter.

    He would often sing snatches of songs and ballads, and dance, accompanied by the pipe and tabor, between the acts, and in the jig which so often concluded the programme. The character represented by the clown was usually a rustic, or a servant, only occasionally a true jester or Court fool. He did not normally wear the jester's motley, but some kind of russet countryman's garb with floppy trousers, or the long mottled-green petticoat of the idiot.

    Some- times a more extravagant dress was assumed, with large shoes, enormous waistcoats, vast ruffs, and top-heavy hats, and the wooden sword, or bat, was still sometimes carried. Some of these English clowns were played by actors who must have been brilliant performers. The most famous of all was Richard Tarleton; he seems to have largely invented the jig as a form of light musical enter- tainment, and was renowned for his improvisations and his repartee with the audience.

    In appearance he was a short, thick-set fellow, with curly hair, a squint, a comically flattened nose, and slightly hump-backed; he died, greatly mourned, in William Kemp was also a famous composer of jigs, who gained fame by the publicity stunt of dancing a morris all the way from London to Norwich; he took four weeks over it, accepting challenges as he went, and feted all the way. The English theatrical companies which visited Germany in the middle of the sixteenth century always took a clown with them, who became known as the "English John"; the character of "Pickle Herring," who became extremely popular in Germany, was introduced by Robert Reynolds.

    The clown was the lineal descendant of the Vice, and was no doubt influenced by the domestic fools, by the rustic bumpkins in whom we have always rejoiced, and to a limited extent by the example of the Italian lanni. But England was rich in native comedians, and she had little to learn even from the Italians. It was Shakespeare, however, who solved the dilemma by successfully incorporating the clown into the dramatic struc- ture of his plays as a Bottom or a Dogberry, or as a true domestic fool.

    The Elizabethan clown flourished for comparatively few years, from about to , and towards the end of this period he was regarded as an outmoded provincial convention. In the theatres of the Restoration there was no room for the old English stage clown, and soon Italian mimes were to conquer the British stage. The rough, pugnacious but witty character evolved by Tarleton and Kemp from the comic traditions of the religious drama seemed to have had its day. Survivals of the Clown Banished from the legitimate stage, the clown survived for many years in the drolls performed at the fairground theatres.

    Here at Bartholomew and Southwark Fairs in London, on plots of waste ground at Charing Cross or Lincoln's Inn Fields, at country fairs, barns, and taverns, the mountebanks' stages were set up, and short, garbled extracts from recent dramatists were mingled with old English legends and Biblical stories.

    Well into the eighteenth century these unpretentious strollers preserved upon their boards the clowns of the English tradition — John Swabber, Simpleton the Smith, John Bumpkin, Jack Pudding, Merry Andrew, Trusty, Squib, and Strap, dressed sometimes in the rough clobber of the yokel and sometimes in the motley of the fool. The story of these theatres of the fairs still needs telling, and we cannot follow in any detail the part that the clowns played on the portable stages of Pinkethman, Lee and Harper, Hippisley, Fawkes and Pinchbeck, and many others; they certainly represented a not unimportant branch of the English popular theatre, which has hitherto received less attention than it deserves.

    It was, of course, only a temporary defeat, and in the next century the true native comic genius reasserted itself in the clown of the harlequinade and of the circus. But these were specialized roles, and the funny men of the music-halls were individuals rather than types; the ubiquitous traditional fool must be searched for in a yet deeper layer of folk entertainment. Not more than two actors appeared at a time, and the most usual subjects were Prince Mucidorus, St George and the Dragon, Valentine and Orson, and Dr Forster Faustus ; a fool wearing a paper mask, bells at his knees, and a hareskin cap with ass's ears played a prominent part in every piece.

    In these too a fool made an appearance, sometimes to introduce the play at the beginning and dismiss the audience at the end. In the Sword Dance, which was often given at the same time, Toms or Clowns, with painted or masked faces, would caper round the dancers with antic gestures. In the May Games at the beginning of May, with the setting up of the maypole and the crowning of the May King and Queen, there went the Robin Hood plays and similar festivities in which the fool often played a part. A curious May Day procession was reported from Hertfordshire in , headed by two men with blackened faces, one dressed as a woman in rags and tatters, and the other, with a large artificial hump on his back, carrying a birch broom; these were known as Mad Moll and her husband.

    They were followed by other pairs more elegantly attired, in every case the women being played by men. Here and there the company stopped for a dance, and if the audience crowded in too closely Mad Moll's husband went to work with his broom, sweeping the road-dust into the faces of the crowd and chasing them about with his broomstick.

    In all these rural games and sports the morris was regularly danced, and in this too a fool, originally dressed in correct jester's motley, sometimes made up one of the team. Here, beside the stock characters of King George, the Turkish Knight, and the Doctor, there were always certain subsidiary figures to introduce the play and make the collection at the end, and some of these appear to be indisputable clowns. My head's so big, my wit's so small, I've brought my fiddle to please you all. The Jack of the mummers was nearly always padded like a hunchback.

    I do not wish to press the parallel too far, but it is perhaps significant to find this purely English tradition of the hunchback clown running like a thread from the old Vice to Tarleton and the clown of the mummers. There is no need to invent prehistoric 'derivations' from Dossennus or even Pulcinella; a humpback is grotesque, and grotesques make simple people laugh, whatever the country or the century; but it is important to establish that the humpbacked comedian belongs to all countries.

    He has an English as well as a French and an Italian lineage. But unfor- tunately there is no clear documentary proof of the existence of puppet shows in England at any time during the Middle Ages. The word 'puppet' was, however, known in fourteenth-century England, and was used by Chaucer at least twice He in the waist is shaped as well as I; This were a popet in an arm to embrace For any woman small and fair of face.

    The sense here is ironical; Chaucer, who is describing himself in this passage, was corpulent, and he means, jokingly, that a small woman would never get her arm round his waist like she would a puppet! Similarly, in describing a pretty girl: In all this world,. There was no man so wise, that could he thench So gay a popelote, or such a wench, "Thench" means imagine, and the sense of "popelote" must be a pretty little thing. But there are illustrations of some thirty or forty years earlier to suggest that he may have had a true puppet, in its modern meaning, in his mind.

    This manuscript was written in Picard dialect by an unknown scribe in , and the illustrations by Jehan de Grise were finished in In addition to illustrations to the text, a great many delightful genre scenes of popular games, dances, and amusements have been painted in the lower borders of the pictured pages; these have no connexion with the text.

    This beautiful manuscript seems to have been produced in Flanders, and at first glance it might seem that this interesting Flemish volume can be of no evidence for English conditions. A careful examination, however, suggests that, in the words of J. Jusserand, the book "appears to have been compiled for English people, perhaps on English soil. The illuminator seems to have been familiar with both French and English customs.

    Finally, all the recorded owners of the manuscript, from the fifteenth century on, were English. There are, therefore, some grounds for believing that this medieval glove-puppet show, in its little 'castle,' was of a type familiar not only on the Continent, but in England during the fourteenth century. Apart from this intriguing glimpse, no further references to puppets in medieval England seem to have survived.

    We may believe, with some confidence, that they never in any way acquired the status of an impor- tant popular entertainment, but that they played some part for many centuries in the repertoire of itinerant minstrels, alongside the dancers with "the obscene motions of their bodies," the maskers with their animal heads, the tumblers and the jugglers, the performing bears, apes, horses, and dogs, at taverns and ale-houses or in the great halls of the nobles.

    We have already recorded the religious articulated images in English churches — the Rood of Grace at Boxley, the Pentecostal dove at St Paul's, and the puppet play of the Resurrection at Witney. This play, derived no doubt from the religious tradition of moving images, was probably presented by marionettes, and was almost certainly being per- formed by It seems probable that marionettes of some kind were occasionally employed in the open-air miracle plays that succeeded the church performances, and these must have been manipulated from pageant wagons.

    PET THEATRE to abolish certain abuses that had crept into the performance of the local plays, including men dressed up farcically as women and devils, and "god on strings"; and a stage direction in a Cornish mystery of calls for "every degree of devils of leather and spirits on cords.

    The references to puppets in medieval England are scarce and doubtful, but even among these few records there is sufficient authority for us to believe that both glove puppets and marionettes, used in a fully dramatic manner, were familiar forms of popular entertainment by the fifteenth century, and that a tradi- tion of both secular and religious puppet shows had been established here long before the Elizabethan Age.

    May-games and masques, with mirth and minstrelsy, Pageants and school-feasts, bears, and puppet-plays. O exceeding puppet! Now will he interpret to her," writes Shakespeare in 1 Motions have been accepted as synonyms for puppets by all the competent authorities, and in many cases this is quite certainly the sense of the word, but if we examine the references carefully we shall find that the term was used extremely loosely to describe any kind of moving mechanism — quite apart from the twelve alternative meanings allotted to it by the Oxford English Dictionary.

    It fades to the background for most of the song, but it's still there. In light of that, it's a pretty damn good melody that complements the meat of the song very well, and turns Haruka from a decent song into a good one. A very enjoyable, easy to listen to piece.

    Y'know, there are songs I could fall asleep listening to because they're boring, and there are songs I could fall asleep listening to because they're so goddamn relaxing. This falls squarely in the second category, and is actually on my playlist of songs that I play every night as I lie in bed falling asleep. I have an immense soft spot for this song because of that, but looking at it objectively, I'm definitely overrating it.

    The biggest reason is because it really doesn't deviate from its relaxing melody in any interesting manner despite going on for nearly eight minutes. It serves a definite purpose And a modified purpose for me , but really there isn't THAT much too it past that. Now Far, as opposed to Psy-Chorus, deserves every bit of love it gets.

    This is an absolutely amazing song in the same vein as Hope, but at the same time totally distinct. But my favorite thing about this song is the progression. Absolutely great piece that fuses a few different sounds to make a brilliant melody. I'm kinda on the fence about Fake Red Shoes. On one hand, it's a nice piece that makes for a fine battle track and is enjoyable to listen to, especially when you need something to get the blood pumping.

    But on the other hand, at several points, I feel like I'm just being hit by a wall of pure noise while listening to it. An enjoyable track, but still pretty flawed. This track is "alright" I guess. It's got a good melody to it, and it holds your attention well. But really, that's all there is to it. Sure, it's got those qualities, but beyond that, there's really nothing special about it and it really gets lost in the shuffle when the better tracks get involved. Still a very listenable track though, and one that deserves more discussion.

    This is another one of those tracks I'm iffy on, but I think overall I like Haze. There's nothing really special about it, and it doesn't stand out in any notable way to me, but it just resonates well with me. Not something I'd actively choose to listen to over many songs on the soundtrack, but when it comes up, I'm like "Hey this is a cool song". Here's a pretty cool song. It's a high-energy tune that fuels that meta-world suspense of "how the hell is Battler going to argue his way out of this", though it doesn't really play DURING the argument per se.

    Either way, great song that's just very fun to listen to. I don't like this track as much as I do the original DotG. Fundamentally, it's more or less the same as Dread of the Grave, but there are two differences that stick out to me aside from the standard remix changes.

    First off, it's louder. Like I noted on Fake Red Shoes, at some points it does feel more like noise than Dread of the Grave Especially the first couple seconds , and second, there's this high-pitched noise that's kinda in the background that gets kinda annoying if I focus on it for whatever reason. In spite of this, it's still an absolutely amazing track, if inferior to its counterpart, and I love it. I would also like to take this time to point out the drums. It's not Neil Peart, but I'll be damned if that isn't a great drum rhythm.

    This is basically the other Organ Short with a different sound But the same melody. It's easier to listen to than the other one, but honestly it just doesn't have the same charm that the other one has IMO. Still plenty enjoyable, but Man I love this song. So much.

    Listening to this track is just a ride, really. It holds your attention really, really well, and it's a track that pulls everything off really really well, and is one of the most enjoyable tracks to listen to. It's not a god-tier piece, not by any means, but it's still in the upper tiers of the music. I really can't hear a difference between this and the omake version of it aside from the 20 extra seconds at the beginning. Pretty much everything I said about the Omake applies here, and the extra 20 seconds don't really do much for me either way since it's just an intro consisting of the main melody of the song.

    And here we have the HoM remix that serves as the theme music for the worthless rabbits. Dance of the Moon Rabbits is a cool remix of HoM, but ultimately it only really gets by on that. I don't like it as much as HoM, and I really don't feel like it flows as well as its original, but it's still a pretty good track all in all. I am not sure at all what's going on in the background of this track. Is it little kids talking? SantaRPG would be proud. But anyways, this is another one of those tracks that doesn't really stand out and do anything at all for me.

    The melody also gets on my nerves as the song progresses. It's just not fun to listen to. This on the other hand is a pretty 'quality' track. It doesn't stand out, and it doesn't do anything for me, but it's one of the more solidly-written tracks in the VN. It's basically everything a song should be, but it also manages to be totally mediocre and unnotable at the same time. It builds up well, climaxes decently, and isn't painful to listen to, but there's still nothing good about it as a piece of music.

    Prison is a high-energy track that is very enjoyable to listen to. It has a very nice melody that just brings a smile to my face when I hear it, and it's a very well-made sound. Unfortunately, there isn't that much to the song beyond that, though what song needs much more than a fine melody? TfBB is one of the more Emotional tracks in the game for sure. It's an incredibly touching track, and while it's not Discolor or even Dead Angle levels of despair, it's still a very down track.

    On the other hand though, it almost feels Dead for the most part. It has its moments, but beyond that, it seems like it just tries to get by on its mood and emotion. Nonetheless, Thanks for Being Born is an absolutely amazing track that deserves every bit of praise it gets. It's one of those tracks that just gets me going every time I hear it.

    The melody is just one that is very well-suited to the rest of the song, and really the whole song just flows really well. Well we're finally hitting the part where pretty much everything is good. We've cut the crap, and we're left with the best. Paradise Lost is a great track that has an incredibly slow first few seconds that reappears occasionally with interludes, but aside from those is a great track with a good melody, but what really excels about this track is the rhythm and background. Here's the red-headed Stepchild of the DotG family.

    It's unique, though, in the sense that while I'd never choose to listen to Dotg -More Fear- over the original DotG given the choice, I would at least consider rhythm over the regular DotG depending on my mood. It's the same basic melody, but rhythm is a good deal shorter, and quite different. The emphasis is shifted from the melody to the rhythm, and while the song probably suffers a bit in terms of quality, it makes up for it in being a unique blend of sounds that even the original DotG can't quite capture. Woo ZTS. It's incredibly heavy on the percussion and bass parts, which really shine through and are the key reason this track is so goddamn awesome.

    But the other reason that this track is so great is the melody. The melody is so damn good and just gives off "I'm going to kick your ass and there is absolutely nothing you can do about it" vibes. Which I absolutely love in a piece of music. Overall, amazing song, but just shy of the best-of-the-best, really. This is the first truely Vocal-driven track that I've heard, isn't it? Either way, Activepain is pretty much the defining piece of this part of the musicbox - High-energy, fun tracks that gets to the point and makes you enjoy listening to it. I'm not terribly big on vocals for the most part, especially when they overshadow what sounds like a good instrumentation Which is what I feel happens here , but they don't really detract from the song in any big way either.

    So overall a decent, but not great song that's just fun to listen to. Parallel falls under "less exciting", but that doesn't mean "bad". Parallel is really a decent track, but it's also repetitive and boring in my opinion. There's nothing really outstanding about it to make up for that, either.

    I dunno, really. What an underrated track. There isn't really anything of a background to it. F Style isn't really in the top tier or anything, but it's one of those tracks that really is great in spite of the fact that it's so simplistic and straightforwards, and I can't help but love it. This is one of the very few times I prefer a vocal version of a track to an instrumental version. Happy Maria is a song thats defining trait is that it's crazy. And that's compounded by the crazy lyrics.

    I mean, the melody is still there, and it's still nice to listen to, but without the vocals, the song really just feels more incomplete than anything. I can't really fathom why this was made, either, especially since we do have the vocal version. Hey it's the organ short again. But on some weird percussion Xylophone?

    It's also totally inferior because this instrument does NOT suit the song at all. Like, the organ gave it a great sound that made it stand out and it just fit. But this one? Not in the slightest. In spite of that, it IS still the Organ Short, and is still a good melody. This is another 'meh' track that is literally right in the exact same vein as wingless for me. Maybe there's something in it that I'm missing, but ehhhhh. So remember my Organ Short Million in C Minor writeup where I said there was one song that stuck with me more than that?

    Yeah, this is it. This song only plays twice in the entire VN IIRC when Battler is fooling around with Beelzebub and when Amakusa turns on the boat's radio, both in Ep 4 , but this song just stuck with me even more than the first few seconds of the Organ Short. And it's a worthy track, too. Catchy as hell, upbeat, fun to listen to, and vocals that actually make the song better for legitamate reasons. Overall, this may not be the BEST song, but it's definitely one of the most fun ones to listen to, and for all the weird illogical soft spots I have, the largest one might be for this.

    This is another one of those tracks that is slower and honestly this one is kinda sorta dull. It's a well-written track, but it doesn't appeal to me at all. It's like, I can see why people WOULD like it, because it's one of those well-made slower tracks that some people find incredibly appealing and interesting, but I'm not one of those people.

    Here's another one of those jazzy high-energy songs in the same vein as Monochrome Clock, but I don't like it as much. The entire focus seems to be on the speed and energy of the track, which just makes it not as fun to listen to. It's also somewhat reptitive, but ehhhh. Overall it's a decent track, but in the face of Monochrome Clock, nothing about it stands out, and just in general, it really only has energy going for it. Oh hey cool it's a drum beat put on repeat for Well not literally on repeat, but it is the same basic drum beat with some minor variation.

    On the bright side, it's an interesting and fun beat that is enjoyable to listen to, but well. It's literally just a drum beat. At least this track is unique compared to its counterparts in the previous few sets. It's really not that great, but it is listenable and I do kinda happen to be in the mood for a track like this right now. It's nothing outstanding, but it's a listenable track that is 'alright'. I like this song a good deal. It's like everything that's good about the high energy tracks, but just kinda It's also catchy as hell.


    Not the greatest track ever, but I hear a few different melodies in this one from other songs HoM stands out to me in particular and I just like it a lot. This was a pretty in-and-out track both according to me and Audiosurf. It had its moments where it was in, but then it would fade out to just a rhythm before coming back in. Overall, an alright track though. Nothing special, but also nothing overly boring like some of the previous things I've ranted about and slammed.

    An enjoyable track, but it just doesn't stand up to the big ones. This is like Big ZTS without actually being recognized as such. Sure, it's inferior to all of them, but as a heavy, bass-intensive electronic piece, it's pretty goddamn good. You can definitely hear Stupefaction in this, which now isn't a bad thing because unlike Stupefaction being godawful boring and reptitive, this song really isn't. Well as far as heavy bass-intensive electronic pieces go.

    Pretty good song, either way. Ahh, this song reminds me of Tsubasa a lot actually. And I do enjoy this piece quite a bit. It's got its lead-in to the main part which is pretty nice, but the main part of the main melody is what really clinches this one as good for me. You know, one thing I never noticed about this song before was the bass part in the background.

    Such a great song, and just so nice to listen to. The entire melody is excellent, and even the slowed down version of it that plays later on is good to listen to. The bass melody and drums are awesome too, which really complements this whole thing nicely. I don't recall which one it was, but I heard a lot of Mortal Stampede on my replay.

    But again, it's a damn good melody that is absolutely capable of driving a song on its own. But what separates this from Mortal Stampede is the rhythm. Unlike Mortal Stampede, the rhythm here is borderline impossible to miss because of the spanish? And overall, it does good things for the song.

    This is like Mortal Stampede for cool hipsters lmao implying they exist or something. I don't like it AS much as Mortal Stampede, but it's still a damn good straight-up remix of it that still manages to pull off all the right parts. It could be better yeah, but then you can say that about pretty much any song. It's just an enjoyable piece that manages to retain most all of what makes Mortal Stampede great.

    This might be my favorite song in the set. At any rate, this is like Mortal Stampede in terms of style, but that's where the similarities end really. It's a fast-paced song that lets it all out on the table and really benefits from it. It's a great song, and while the Mortal Stampede similarity is there, I feel like it's also distinct enough to definitely be it's own And superior piece. What a strange song. Ronove maybe? But the vocals really complete and complement the song in a very unique way that just makes it one of the most fun songs to listen to on the entire soundtrack.

    Great song. This song actually reminds me of Over a good deal. It's definitely percussion-driven, but unlike Over, it also has a melody to it. It's a very powerful, yet kinda curt melody that really serves a purpose of accentuating the percussion and giving the song a sense of urgency. Overall, good song. Man, according to Audiosurf, this is one hell of a ride, especially towards the end. While I disagree with that, Dir IS one of the most powerful songs in the game.

    It's filled with complete raw emotion that has brought tears to my And several other peoples' eyes before. Dir is one of the most beautiful songs in the VN, with an absolutely amazing melody, and is definitely worthy of its place in the top tier. Board 8 knows of my relative dislike for DreamEndDischarger. There are several sections in the song where it feels like it's trying too hard to be WorldEndDominator v2 and just failing. The parts where it's being unique instead of WED 2.

    I don't take it over any of the other big ZTS songs except maybe Goldenslaughterer, but that doesn't mean I dislike it at all. Its only flaw, aside from WED 2. Just parts of it is that it's a lot longer than it really needs to be. It could probably get away with being about two minutes shorter. Oh god I love this song a lot. The rhythm here. It's just an absolutely amazing rhythm and definitely the best in the first four episodes, and definitely contends for best in the entire soundtrack.

    Everything about this song is pretty damn close to perfect. Now I haven't the foggiest idea what he's actually saying for the most part, but the computer voice fits the song really goddamn well and just complements it. Discode is an interesting song. It starts off slowly then goes to all hell between the instruments and the vocals. It's pretty good, but the vocals do absolutely nothing for me here. I'm sure that some of you will disagree with me on this, but for the most part Happy Maria being one of the very few exceptions the vocals don't do anything for me on this soundtrack.

    I feel like a Discode Instrumental would hold up at least as well as this does. But it's still a good, listenable song that I do enjoy. Ehhh, this song. I'm really not sure what to think about it. I mean it's a decent, listenable melody that doesn't bore me, but I don't like it. It doesn't resonate with me in the slightest. And I really don't have much to say about it aside from that.

    It's kinda disappointing to finish out on such a low note tbqh. I really enjoy it, too. And really unlike what I said when I was reviewing Discode, the vocals here really just serve to accentuate how catchy it is. But then, catchy and high-energy is all it has going for it. Not the best song, beyond that. This song may not be as catchy as either of the other two openings, but it's definitely a better song. Everything about this song is well-written and flows really, really well.

    The vocals aren't that great, but they serve as a nice accent to the piece, I feel. Overall, just an incredibly likable song that prides itself on its flow, which is something that a good deal of these songs can't do. This song is more of a quieter, laid back piece that is reminiscent of hope in so many ways. It's a very good track, too, and one that I don'tsee mentioned by very many people as a great track.

    My only real problem with it is that it's too laid-back, and it suffers a bit as a result. Still a very good track overall, though. Here's another one that gets by on being catchy as hell. The melody for this one, unlike OnM though, is surprisingly solid and great to listen to. This is another reasonably catchy and likable song.

    Seems like most Ep 5 songs fall in that for me. Not many of them are awesome, but they're all for the most part decent and catchy. Anyways, the reason this one really sticks out to me is because of its bass part that plays during what I guess is the chorus of the piece. It really accentuates the song well. Well I did say 'most'. One is a quieter song that doesn't really stick out that much Surprisingly, this holds truer in the higher-energy parts.

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    The slower melody is recognizable and memorable enough , but it's more of a piece of mood music, and it does set a mood. It's decent, but overall, One just doesn't realy stick out enough and definitely gets lost in the shuffle of Ep 5 tracks, most of which DO stand out in some form. Spiral is a slow piece with an emphasis on the piano and the lady singing in the background.

    It's not the catchiest piece, but the main melody definitely sticks with you. It's a very haunting melody, and while it's not the most enjoyable thing, it might be one of the better mood pieces in the series in that capacity. A very memorable and solid piece. And now we've got a very blatant remake of the Organ Short.

    This is a really good piece. Very, very well-made, and retains most of the charm of the Organ short while transforming it into something far more melancholy than tense, and definitely not Beatrice. Excellent song. Pretty much throughout, it's got that electronic sound combined with the bass drum that is VERY prevelant in most of ZTS's work, and really it serves as a very very nice backing to the main melody here. But the melody itself is good too. It's catchy, exciting, and sticks out. Overall, it's a strong piece that really benefits well from how everything fits together.

    I could argue that the emphasis is actually on the bass drum beat for a majority of the song And that the melody accentuates that, rather than the other way around , but the whole thing really just WORKS. And it works in absolutely amazing ways. The song starts off slowly, but once it picks up, it never, ever looks back and it just keeps carrying on using that beautiful rhythm and melody. I've really always thought of this one as Dread of the Grave lite. This is a fast electronic-type piece that is definitely remniscient of DotG in terms of style and mood, but honestly that's where the similarities end.

    Even DotG has a calmer section to it. Another absolutely amazing track. But yeah, great track that gets full milage and then some out of what's an absolutely amazing melody. The slow parts of this song kinda remind me of the buildup of Promise. The rest of the song is alright too though. Most of the song IE: not the slow parts is a very fast-paced track with a decent bass part that really relies on its speed to keep you hooked. While it succeeds at that, and is a decent song, I just really don't feel like it's well-written as a result.

    It seems too This is another exciting song that's up the same alley as Totem Blume. The melody here is nothing really amazingly complex or anything, but it definitely gets the job of being a tense, fearful tune done. But yeah, another nice track that's pretty similar to Totem Blume, which isn't really a bad thing either. As the title may or may not indicate, this is a pretty melancholy piece, and there really isn't THAT much to it beyond that in my opinion.

    I find its melody uninteresting, and for a song like this that tries to carry itself on said melody, that's not a good thing at all. Its redeeming factor though, is its bass part. The bass part is reasonably complex and interesting to listen to, which is a good thing for an otherwise kinda boring song, but since in this song, it's more of a background part, there's only so much it can do. I think this is the only Ep 5 track that I find grating and hard to listen to on any level. For pretty much the entire time, it feels like this piece is trying But thankfully failing to rape my ears.

    It is very, very tough for me to listen to this track without at least wanting to skip it part of the way through. I just think that this is a very poorly written track that did not take into consideration the effect of high-pitched constant screech-like sounds on human ears. What a poorly-written mess of a song. I like this track. It feels like a lot of the Ep 5 tracks are kinda formed from this one, but this one has some kind of charm to it. It's a very memorable track, and solidly written, though I just feel like overall it leaves a bit to be desired.

    I think that stems from the rhythm, which is noticable, but overall pretty lacking I'd say. Still a good song, but it could certainly be better. Oh hey it's zts. This track is basically Goldenslaughterer 2. The Bass part is incredibly awesome in this, and is capable of carrying the song on its own, but wait, there's more! The melody here keeps the bass from carrying the song because it is, for the most part, excellent as well.

    The amazing part about this though, is that there are a couple different melodies you could call the "main" one if you wanted, I feel. Sure it can be argued otherwise, but I think part of this song's charm is its variance in spite of its basic foundings in Goldenslaugheter. Absoluely excellent song. Apprently this is supposed to be some kind of remix of Answer, but who cares it's awesome regardless how you consider it in that regard.

    Notably, the part that runs Check the video IMO is absolutely godlike. It's like sex. But for your ears. Best part is that it comes up later in the song too. Now we're at a lower-energy, slower organ piece. I feel like this track is kinda Overbearing, really, with the way that it forces itself on you and uses its forceful melody, but that's not entirely bad.

    My problem with this song is that while it's got a memorable melody, it's just not really enjoyable. I can't really bring myself to like this track. Discolor is An absolutely brilliantly amazing track. One of my favorites for sure. Furthermore, forget what I said about any other song being emotional. None of them have anything on Discolor. Like I didn't even use Audiosurf with this song because I honestly feel like it would be blasphemous against the music to do so.

    And that's the only song on the soundtrack I feel that way about. Also, this song has only been used once in the entire VN. This song is another one of those very fast-paced tracks that I tend to get mixed up with each other. I also find it to be a pretty mediocre song, especially in comparison to a lot of these other tracks I've been hearing lately.

    It doesn't really stand out in any way compared to, say, Final Answer, Resurrectedreplayer, Discolor, or even Patchwork Chimera. Bread of Life on the other hand, is good. It doesn't suffer any of the notable problems, really, but then I also really feel like it doesn't have that special element to it that makes a good song great.

    It's a solid melody, and it's an enjoyable piece, but I feel like it kinda lacks substance, y'know? This is another one of those songs that I don't care for in the slightest but I can understand why somebody would. The instrumentation is nice, and has a hint of beauty to it, but the main reason I don't' care for this is the singer.

    Like, I can see why somebody would like her voice, but it just totally rubs me the wrong way. And since that's the whole focus of the song, well, yeah This is another of those fast-paced tracks that relies on its melody to get it everywhere. The rhythm section here is so forgettable and just really nothing that great. Luckily, the melody is pretty good. This song is a lot like Justice in that regard, really, but it's not nearly as good.

    A listenable track and really not much more. Due to technical difficulties this song has been replaced with Tsubasa PinoMix. Anyways, this is some kind of cool remix of the original Tsubasa, and it doesn't disappoint in the slightest. It starts out with very nice instrumentation that keeps up throughout the whole song, and shortly after, the vocals kick in. Now I don't particularly mind the vocals here, but there is the section where they cut out and it's replaced by the singer I dunno.

    But that part is bothersome to listen to. I can not stand this song. The organ is absolutely grating and painful to listen to in this piece, and I hate it. And while it's not bad, it's too straightforwards and reptititve to be truely likable, I feel. I can sum this song up in three words: Really, Really, Repetitive. I mean, it's a solid melody, but it's so repetitive that it's just so damn boring by the time you get halfway through as a result.

    But on the other hand it's not like Grey Empty Smile bad or anything. And this one is another somewhat repetitive track. It doesn't really feel as long or as boring as Love Examination does though. It's a lot more quieter and definitley more of a background piece, which lends well to the reptitive nature of it, but then, it also doesn't stand out in the slightest.

    At least it's nice while it lasts. Yeah we're up to three more reptitive tracks in a row now. This is pretty much the same as A Single Moment conecptually, and in practice it's not really that different but the melody is different. Oh hey cool a legit awesome track.

    Blue Butterfly is a straight-up no gimmicks piano piece that really delivers. The balance between slow and fast, the melody Brilliant track that gets overshadowed by Life and Battle Field among others as far as Ep 6 music goes, and really gets overshadowed by most of the highest-tier pieces in general which is kinda sad, because I think it's about worthy of being up there. Man the distortion on the synths here at the start is something else. I'm not particularly fond of it, but it's interesting to listen to.

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    Anyways, this song is mostly driven by its cool, if a tad simplistic, drum beat alongside another melody. But overall, it kinda falls in the middle of "ehhh this track is alright" to me. It's got some interesting parts to it, but it's not anything truely special. Man this song has such a cool intro melody. But that's really all it has going for it. The rest ranges from "Goddamn this is kinda annoying to listen to" to "Ehhhh it's alright". And really the first few seconds Even when they show up again later can't save the rest of it and make it something legit good.

    Pretty middle of the road track overall, though, because while it can be pretty annoying at points, and the main melody isn't THAT great, it does have some pretty cool parts to it. Waltz Op. And here's Black Lilliana again. Wait you mean this isn't actually Black Lilliana? Anyways yeah this is pretty much a direct ripoff of Black Lilliana, but it's not quite half as long and the melody was ever so slightly distorted to make it sound different. So yeah, it's a direct ripoff of a good song, but I just find it less enjoyable. Maybe it's the length? This feels like it should be longer to me with the way it just cuts off.

    This song takes an interesting melody and just runs with it, occasionally mixing in a really neat drum rhythm. It feels kinda boring by the end to me, even though it is still a good song. Aww yeah BoanW. Excellent track here. At any rate, this song really rides its melody hard Though not nearly as hard as ALIVE , but it's a really damn good one.

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    The guitar work that shows up is excellent, too. The rhythm section leaves a little to be desired, but it is certainly not the focus of the song, and not much is lost. Holy crap the background part in the intro is hard to notice over everything else going on in this song but it is absolutely amazing. Once you get past the intro though, it's a great song overall. It really rides the same melody far too hard for far too long with not enough variance to be truely interesting and great.

    Still scores an extra fraction of points because its melody is definitely more suited to abuse like that, but it doesn't really redeem it much if at all. The melody here is absolutly phenomonal, and the track is pretty much exactly the perfect length for what it is. Combine that with the single drum making up the rhythm section Which works really well in this piece , and you have a goddamn winner here. Absolutely amazing song. Oh, it's another melancholy track. Considering when this one plays, it works well enough I guess. This is an alright track, with an alright melody, that doesn't have anything exceptional about it.

    It's like the Jr High Kyon of Umineko songs. Absolutely nothing about this track stands out, for good or for bad. Woooo Mortal Stampede remixes. Yeah, this is basically Mortal Stampede v2 done in a bit more of an electronic style. It's still an excellent song, and the rhythm section stands out as great, but honestly I don't think the style is very well-suited towards the song itself. There's also plenty of variance in this one, so despite being as long as it is, it doesn't really drag at all IMO. This song reminds me of something, but I can't quite put my finger on what Oh well.

    This is another one of those songs that rides its melody way too ha-Ha! Just kidding, this one doesn't do that AS badly. It changes pace a good deal of the way through for just long enough to get a refreshing break before going back into its melody to finish out the song. It doesn't really redeem the rest of the song for being the same thing over and over, but it is at least a nice break. I would also like to point out that good god the drum section here is great. Like really goddamn good great. It's not really THAT great of a melody, but it's passable at the very least, and the song doesn't really ride it that hard.

    This is an amazing track. In pretty much every way possible. The main problem with it though is that no single part of it really stands out. On the other hand though, the entire thing stands out as a piece. And really, this track just flows well. It doesn't drag, and it doesn't feel forced at places. It just goes whatever direction it feels like it should go, and it really benefits as a track from it.

    Excellent piece. Kina no Kaori is a very melodic piece, with absolutely no emphasis on rhythm. There IS a drum section, but the amount of effort required to hear it means it may as well not exist, which is sad because it's decent. Either way, the melody here is a fine one, and the song itself is alright and listenable, but it's nothing overly special. Now we've got this longer piece Nearly 6 minutes! Unfortunately, being as long as it is, it starts to drag.

    And while this is a nice melody it's got here, I simply can't enjoy it past the first couple minutes. Geeze what a nice bass part this song has. And really, this is a good solid song in general. Good melody, good rhythm section Bass and Drums both! The drum section is good too! This is a cool, if somewhat inferior, Final Answer remix. This track is pretty much the prototype of zts songs. Electronic sound, that great drum rhythm, cool melody, interludes with somewhat different melodies, this song has it all.

    Unfortunately, relative to the rest of ZTS's major works, this one doesn't really stand out as great. I mean, it's got all the parts to be a MirageCoordinator or WorldEndDominator, but the execution really just seems lacking here. It's like HoM. But slower. And without the lead-ins that made the original great. Yeah, pretty bad song overall, really, and I'm just thankful that it's not overly long. Hey it's BoaNW again. The vocal version is pretty good, but I don't feel like the short version stacks up to the Instrumental version.

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    7. Just feels like there's something missing here. Ironically, even though the Vocals do add to the song here, they also make it feel incomplete, especially relative to the full version. Here's another one of those songs that attempts to make its living on beauty, but this one doesn't really do it AS well. It's a nice piece, and it's a good variance in its melody to make it enjoyable, but it doesn't get passing marks for beauty, which seems to be the goal to me.

      Oh man do the vocals ever complete this piece. The regular Fishy Aroma is great, but this version really cranks it up another notch. Excellent piece here, and the added sound effects Most notably the ahaha. Well, it's not Rose tier at least for long and boring, because the melody is nice to listen to for a little while at least, but the main question I have is "why is this song 8 minutes long? Man, what another great piece of BGM. I don't particularly enjoy this as a piece of free-listening, but this is well-written track that is great for the background.

      The solid melody here is really the standout of the track. It's very relaxing to listen to. Is that An acoustic guitar in the background? Absolutely love it. The melody on this is only decent at best, but the rest of the song is really good and definitely makes up for it. Standout track overall, really, and one worth listening to. Dude this track really reminds me of legit rain with how easy to listen to and relaxing it is. This isn't really the best track there is, but this has to be the single easiest-to-listen to track in the series.

      There isn't that much in the way of a rhythm section here, but I feel like that helps it as an easy listening piece. The melody though It realy carries this piece all the way through. Great melody, and it makes for a great song overall. Here's another solid track. The lead-in is interesting, which sets up the main melody of the song. It's a solid melody. I'd like to call special attention to the drums though. Goddamn do I like the drums here. I am a sucker for good drum work. And this song has good drum work IMO. Not that particularly great of a song If somewhat interesting outside of that, but it's still perfectly listenable.

      This track is like Rain in concept, but it's just so inferior. Decentish melody that's calm and relaxing, but it really isn't that easy to just listen to IMO. There are too many spots, however short they are, where there's litearlly just nothing going on, and that really hurts the song. It's really mediocre at best I'd say. Oh hey it's that voice.

      The vocals aren't by any means good, but they're at least tolerable, and while aside from them, there's no melody to speak of Ok there IS one, but it's nothing worth speaking about since the voice overshadows it , this song is basically a cool drum section with hard-to-listen-to vocals. I can rave about the drum section, but there's really no particular part about it that stands out. It just all blends together well, but it can't redeem the song on its own.

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      Also good god this is seven minutes long lolwhat. There's just not much substance to this one, I feel, beyond it's "alright" melody. Nameless Song Ver. Oh hey, this song. I really love this song. It's like I've mentioned some pieces as borderline beautiful before. But as far as that goes, this one just absolutely takes the cake.

      I mean, this isn't really THAT great of a song as it is, that aside, but good god it is an absolute thing of beauty. I think my biggest problem with it is that louder piano or whatever tends to be kinda grating to listen to when it's not being absolutely beyond beautiful. But still, a decently solid piece all around, and immense beauty on top of that.

      I don't really like this song much. There really isn't anything redeeming in this song. Except it's entirely piano. I don't like it as much as the standard Far, mostly because the extra non-piano parts really benefitted, I think. But it still captures most of the charm and greatness of the original piece and pulls it off really well. Oh it's another melody-driven track. It's a short piece, too, and the melody is good enough to totally carry the song through here, which is good because the song lacks any sort of drums or rhythm, which kinda makes me sad, but eh a piece like this doesn't really need them anyways.

      Overall good track here. I'm really not sure what to say about this track. It's weird and trippy as hell though. There's a really unique kind of flow to it that's hard to put into words, too, and the drum section is pretty good. But the melody here is just outright bad IMO and not fun to listen to at all, and whatever that other prevailing sound effect is that goes a long way towards making it so trippy is just tough to listen to. I don't really like this track, but I guess I can see why somebody would.

      So this is basically Toybox's melody with a few minor changes. Namely a drum and a bit of some other percussion Xylophone? So there really isn't anything to say that I didn't say about Toybox. This is really not that good in the slightest, and the noise that this song tries to pass as a melody isn't in the slightest bit attention-grabbing or interesting to listen to. It actually almost gave me a headache to listen to this one. Just boring ignoring that. Man, like the other version of this song, this is a real thing of beauty.

      Even better it's extended for a few more minutes of pure amazing beauty. But yeah, one of the most beautiful pieces I know, and honestly just a great track to sit down and listen to no matter what you're doing or what the context is. It's not the most upbeat piece there is, but who needs that when you're beautiful enough to bring tears to a man's eyes. Like, the composer here Xaki right? This has to be the most painful piece of music I've ever heard anywhere. The stretch from to is particularly painful.

      To put it in the words of a good friend of mine: "There was this one time where I got into a fight with a girl when I was 6 and she screamed realy loud when I pulled her hair and I would rather listen to her scream for 5 minutes rather than listen to this song". Literally the worst song I've ever heard.

      It hurts my ears. Here we've got another track that I would place in the "beautiful" category. EotW is a great piano piece, when it's in its melody. When it's outside its melody it pretty much moves at a crawl and the quality really suffers. Even so, the melody here that this song is so proud of is a great one. Furthermore, the particular section that shows up a couple times at the song, but most notably is absolutely mindblowing.

      This song takes 13 seconds to wake up. Once it does wake up though, it busts out what's easily the best melody in the episode and really plays it well. This is an excellent song, and probably my favorite in the episode. Did I mention the guitar? Yeah, on the surface, this song sounds like a bunch of noise and static thrown together, and honestly it really is.