Generally a pen is used instead of a pencil. The rule is changed here. Know- ing that which is essential for you. The large red feathers. In order to determine the difficult part. The word means simple in Spanish. We understand but we do not talk yet. The class learns that in Spanish the adjective agrees with the 2 noun it modifies in gender and number. The position of ad- jectives is studied, because it is essential [to] know when the 4 adjective is placed before the noun instead of after the noun in a Spanish sentence. Simple and easy words are used 6 generally in the grammar lesson and in the vocabulary.
The second conjugation is quite easy to de learn. The 8 truth is that there are no very difficult Spanish verbs, and with a little study a student can learn all the conjugations. Conjugue V. The following adjectives lose the final -o when they pre- cede a masculine singular noun: bueno, good primero, first uno, one, a, an malo, bad, ill tercero, third alguno, some, any postrero, last ninguno, no, none un buen padre, a good father algiin dia, some day ningun otro dia, no other day el primer buen dia, the first good day But: If bueno and malo are separated from their noun by other adjectives, they may retain the final -o, especially if the conjunction y intervenes.
The adjective grande meaning ' great' or ' grand' loses its final syllable before a singular noun of either gender. Before a noun beginning with a vowel, or when the ad- jective is emphatic, the full form is sometimes used. To express size, grande regularly stands after the noun it modifies cf. San Antonio, Saint Anthony Note. Ciento, ' hundred,' becomes cien before the noun it modi- fies, even if an adjective intervenes.
But ciento is used be- fore smaller numerals cf. Adjectives and participles are frequently used substan- tively. When so used they take the gender and number of the noun understood. The masculine plural form may designate individuals of both sexes cf. An English noun used adjectively, to denote the material of which a thing is made, or to indicate the purpose of a thing or the use to which it is put, is regularly expressed in Spanish by a corresponding noun preceded by the preposition de.
The same construction is used to translate English adjectives of material. Adjectives may often be used adverbially. Iban P r! Plural nosotros viv-imos we live, etc. Throughout the present indicative of all three conjuga- tions the accent falls on the next to the last syllable, except in the second person plural, where it falls on the last syllable.
The personal endings in the second and third conjuga- tions are exactly similar in all persons and tenses, except in the first and second persons plural of the present indicative. Learn the cardinal numbers from fifty to one hundred cf. Generalmente son de piedra enjalbegada. Hay muy pocas de madera. En Espana muchas casas tienen patios. Se entra en el patio directamente de la acera por una gran puerta. En el patio hay generalmente hermosas galerias y muchas flores. La cocina esta detras. Las alcobas estan en el primer piso. Algunas veces en las casas elegantes 10 hay tambien una pequena capilla particular con su altar.
Detras del altar muchas veces hay un buen cuadro que repre- 12 senta San Jose o algiin otro santo. A good picture. Some other day. A good and great gentleman. A hundred beautiful Spanish houses. First there is the dining-room; it is entered by the large door. We live in a wooden house. There are sixty pictures of saints in the building. Canada is a great country. Canada is a large country. Sometimes we find an easy lesson in the first book. Whitewashed stone is often used. A good picture behind the altar. The kitchen is entered directly from the sidewalk. The reading lesson is by a Spanish professor.
Joseph is often represented in pictures. The poor man lives here. He can translate the third exercise. Generally Spanish houses are 2 of stone instead of wood.
One often finds an inner court in many of the elegant houses of Spain, and there are a hun- 4 dred things which are quite different. The inner court is usually entered from the sidewalk by [means of] a large door. It is necessary [to] enter en the inner court first. Once in 8 the inner court, it is easy enough [to] enter the principal rooms: the reception hall, the drawing-room, et cetera. The 10 kitchen cannot be entered from the inner court.
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The bed- rooms are generally on the second floor and not on the 12 ground floor with the other rooms. Spanish is very rich in suffixes, which are added to nouns, adjectives and adverbs to modify their ordinary meaning. In addition to the augmentative or diminutive idea, they some- times express depreciation or affection. They are often used, especially in familiar style, but to employ them properly requires much familiarity with the language, for they cannot be ap- pended indiscriminately to any word.
The principal augmentative suffixes are -on, -azo, -ote, -acho. Besides the augmentative, they often have a deprecia- tive value, especially -ote and -acho. The feminine is formed regularly, except of -ote, which becomes -ota. The suffixes -azo and -ada may indicate a blow from, thrust with, report of, or injury due to, the thing named by the noun to which they are added. The principal diminutives are -ito, -cito, -ecito, -illo, -cillo, -ecillo, -ete, -cete, -ecete, -uelo, -zuelo, -ezuelo, and -ucho. The last four are commonly used with a depreciative value. The feminine is formed regularly, except of -ete, which becomes -eta.
The principal use of haber is as an auxiliary verb with past participles to form the compound tenses of verbs. The past participle so used is invariable. He estudiado el espaiiol I have studied Spanish Hemos comido mucho We have eaten a great deal Tener, 'to have,' is used in general only to indicate pos- session.
Tengo un libro I have a book Presente de Indicativo de haber [habiendo, habido] 1 Present Indicative of haber Singular yo he I have tu has thou hast el ella, usted ha he she has, you have Plural nosotros hemos we have vosotros habeis you have ellos ellas, ustedes han they you have 1 Cf.
Presente de Indicativo de tener [teniendo, tenido] 1 Present Indicative of tener Singular yo tengo I have tu tienes thou hast el ella, usted tiene he she has, you have Plural nosotros tenemos we have vosotros teneis you have ellos ellas, ustedes , tienen they you have Learn the cardinal numbers from one hundred to five hun- dred cf.
La familia consta de mis padres, 2 mi hermanito y mis dos hermanas. Mi madre es muy beatona y asiste con frecuencia a misa. Ha vivido en Inglaterra y 4 sabe bien el ingles. Habla con sus hijos en ese idioma. Mi tia, que es viuda, tiene una tiendecita en la misma calle, donde 6 vende libros. Tiene dos hijos, un muchacho y una mucha- 1 Cf.
El muchacho, un mozuelo guapote, ayuda a 1 su madre 8 en la tienda, y cuida de su hermanita cuando su madre esta ocupada. Mi primo esta aprendiendo el ingles. The small table. The little boy. He sells big books. Bad words are heard on the streets. My little brother is quite good-looking. The child has a pretty little flower. The father and mother have a little house on this same street.
She is a widow, and very devout. The little store has four small windows. My mother often takes care of my little cousin. They have had an interesting lesson. Have you found the pencil? The lady has five hundred things in her store. He is very busy because he is helping a his brother. The father has already learned three hundred Spanish words. Writing is a difficult exercise for little children.
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A very devout person attends mass whenever it is possible. Who is this imperious youth? She is a very pretty widow. In the same 2 house his mother has a small store where she sells books and a hundred other little things. My cousin is very good, and, 4 whenever my aunt is busy, he takes care of the store. When he is not helping a his mother, he comes to my house and we 6 study English with my mother who has lived in England and speaks English well.
My mother is generally quite busy, 8 because she takes care of the house and of my little brothers and sisters. She and my aunt are very devout and attend 10 mass whenever it is possible. It is not to be translated cf. They are used here advisedly for the purpose of illustration. The possessive adjectives have different forms when they precede and when they follow the noun.
The possessive pronouns are formed by prefixing the definite article to the adjective forms that are used after the noun. Si, tiene el nuestro Has he a book? Yes, he has ours Note. Tanto gusto en conocerle. El gusto I am very glad to know you. The es mio pleasure is mine Este libro es el mio, no es el suyo This book is mine, it isn't his Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the thing possessed, and in person, with the possessor.
Ser expresses what is inherent or permanent; estar, what is accidental or temporary. Estar also expresses position whether temporary or permanent. Presente de Indicativo de estar [estando, estado] l Present Indicative of estar Singular yo estoy I am tu estas thou art el ella, usted esta he she is, you are Plural nosotros estamos we are vosotros estais you are ellos ellas, ustedes estan they you are Ser is used with the past participles of active verbs to form the passive voice.
The past participle so used agrees in gender and number with the subject. La nifia es castigada por su madre The child is punished by her mother When estar is used with the past participle, a state or condition is expressed rather than an action, and the participle has an adjective value. La puerta esta abierta The door is open state La puerta es abierta The door is opened action Estar is also used with the present participle of verbs to form the progressive tenses.
Esta estudiando He is studying Ser and not estar is always used with a predicate noun. Su padre es abogado His father is a lawyer Es socio He is a member Some adjectives have a different meaning according to whether they are used with ser or estar. El hombre es malo The man is bad evil El hombre esta malo The man is sick El alumno es bueno The student is good El alumno esta bueno The student is well Learn the cardinal numbers from five hundred to one thou- sand cf. Generalmente no es 2 preciso mandar hacer la ropa interior, porque se pueden comprar todas estas cosas en las tiendas.
Mi hermano prefiere al suyo porque hace 6 bien las chaquetas y los chalecos. Yo, al contrario, prefiero al mio porque hace mejor los pantalones. Tengo un armario 8 en mi cuarto donde guardo toda mi ropa exterior. Mi her- mano, que es ingeniero, guarda una parte de la suya en una 10 maleta, porque siempre esta viajando. La ropa exterior que tengo en mi armario consta de un frac y de un smoking, trajes 12 que se llevan por la noche, de una levita que se lleva por la tarde, de un gaban para cuando hace frio y de otros tres o 14 cuatro trajes.
My suit of clothes. Your store; our house. His clothing; their frock-coats. The coat is mine. The valise is yours; he has mine. The tailor is good. He is a pro- fessor. The lesson is learned by the student. The pro- fessor is seated in the chair. The little boy is attending mass for the first time.
The pen and pencil are mine. Your brother has yours. He is here; she is here. The exer- cise is written by the little girl with a pen. The theme is finished. I am with my brother and sister. He is young enough to para begin. He has his book; we have ours. We have been with our tailor. This book may be interesting, but I prefer hers. My brothers buy all their suits in the stores, but I have 2 mine made at the tailor's.
He makes better clothes, and one can always have the suit that one prefers. I am an engineer 4 and always keep a suit of clothes and some underclothing in my valise, because I travel a great deal.
In my wardrobe at 6 home I have trousers and vests, a frock-coat that I wear in the afternoon and a dress-coat that I wear in the evening. Since su pi.
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This is done by the use of either su sus or the definite article before the thing possessed and by de and the proper personal pronoun after the thing possessed which form is often used, even if the verb ser intervenes. SU J casa de el his house de ella her house de usted your house sing. Which is your book? La casa es de el The house is his A possessive adjective modifying two or more nouns should be repeated before each noun, unless these nouns refer to the same person or object.
Mis libros y mi pluma estan aqui My books and my pen are here Mi amigo y profesor, el seiior Godoy My friend and teacher, Mr. Godoy My son!
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The possessive adjective is often replaced by the definite article, especially when referring to parts of the body, clothing, etc. To indicate more definitely the possessor, an indirect object may be used, but, when the action expressed is functional with the part mentioned, the indirect object is regu- larly omitted. Me quite el sombrero I took off my hat Abrio la boca He opened his mouth 1. When the object referred to is a thing in the singular, the like of which is possessed by several individuals of a group, a singular noun is generally used in Spanish where in English the plural is preferred.
The possessive adjective is usually required when the part of the body, clothing, etc. Sus ojos chispeaban Her eyes flashed Yo estaba mirando su linda cara I was looking at her pretty face Una fuerza extraordinaria detuvo A strange power stopped his hands sus manos The possessive adjective may be strengthened by the use of the proper form of the adjective propio, 'own. In Spanish much greater freedom is allowed in the con- struction of the sentence than in English. Subjects or objects may precede or follow the verb, or both may come together before or after the verb. In interrogative sentences it is considered more elegant, as a rule, to place a noun subject after its predicate.
Is the lesson difficult? Has your brother written the letter? Have you written the letter? Learn the objective personal pronouns and their position cf. Aqui se venden corbatas, panuelos, medias, camisas, purios, cuellos y toda la 2 ropa interior que necesita un hombre. Una hermana mia compra su propia ropa en otra tienda donde se venden 4 solamente cosas de mujeres: encajes, delantales, vestidos etc. Nuestros sombreros, guantes y zapatos los 1 compramos en 6 diversas tiendas.
Hay varias camiserias en la calle de Alcala, pero es preciso tener cuidado, porque hay tiendas donde se 8 vende ropa de calidad inferior. Conozco a algunas tiendas muy buenas en Madrid, y siempre doy las senas de ellas a 10 mis amigos cuando desean comprar buena ropa. Cuando la ropa interior esta sucia se la 2 mando a la lavandera. La 12 mia me 3 lava y plancha muy bien las camisas y los cuellos. His house; her house; our gloves; their cuffs. Their collars; your shoes. His shirts and vests. The hat is his.
Their friend and teacher, Mr. I give the col- lars to my daughter. Daughter, where are you? A friend of mine washes his own gloves. He takes off se quita his hat when there are ladies in the room. Our own laundress comes to the house Mondays. This sidewalk of ours needs to be washed. He keeps his hat in his hand. The laundress washes my collars and cuffs. Their hats and gloves are on the table. When it is cold we wear overcoats. Here they are, his friend and mine. He does not live with his own family. I always take care when I buy clothes.
Do you know where there is a 2 good store where they sell mens' clothing? There is a large haberdashery on Alcala Street where they sell shirts, 4 neckties, collars, cuffs, etc. I do not buy my own clothing in this store, it is true, but a friend of mine says that they do 6 not sell inferior things. There are various other haberdash- eries on the same street, but if si you desire good clothing 8 it is better [to] be careful and only buy in the better stores. It is number If you wish to have your shirts and collars washed, I 12 know a laundress who washes and irons very well. The demonstrative adjectives regularly precede their nouns and agree with them in gender and number.
Este denotes what is near the speaker or mentioned by him; ese, what is near, or known to, the person spoken to, or what has recently been referred to; and aquel, what is remote from both or not recently referred to. Referring to time, este denotes the present; ese, a period relatively near; and aquel, a remote period. It may precede, but usu- ally follows its noun, which then takes the definite article.
The demonstrative pronouns are distinguished from the demonstrative adjectives by a written accent. They agree in gender and number with the nouns they represent. The neuter pronouns, having no corresponding adjective forms, need no accent to distinguish them. The neuter pro- nouns do not represent a noun, but refer to a whole phrase, sentence or idea. Which do you like better, these or those? Have you read this? Eso es That's it, or that's right Juan y Pedro son estudiantes; este John and Peter are students; the es trabajador, aquel es holgazan latter is diligent, the former is lazy Note.
Llegue a esta el 15 I arrived here the 15th iComo va su salud en esa? How is your health in that city? El que vino ayer es mi hermano The one he who came yesterday is my brother Lo que necesito es un gaban What that which I need is an overcoat la de los cabellos rubios the fair-haired one lit.
The demonstrative adjective aquel, etc. En Espafia la cultura del tabaco forma una industria muy importante. En ese pais 4 de fumadores esta industria es un monopolio lo mismo que en los otros paises continentales. El tabaco se cultiva, se 6 fabrica y se vende bajo la direccion del estado.
Hay en Sevilla una fabrica muy importante de cigarros y 8 cigarillos. Estos se fuman mucho mas que aquellos en Espafia. Hay pocos espafioles que fuman en pipa. Son muy pocos 10 los que no fuman nada. La verdad es que los espafioles no pueden deshacerse de una costumbre tan so arraigada. These first les- sons. That friend of yours. Those years long ago. This one is better.
How is traveling in that city? The two smokers are in that room over there. There are cigars and cigarettes on the table, the former are for my father and the latter are for my uncle. I do not smoke, because smok- ing is not a good habit. The tobacco factories in Spain are under the direction of the government, are they not? That's it, my friend. Some Spanish sailors learned the use of tobacco.
The one that is here is my brother. That of which he speaks is very important. A monopoly of the other industries is not necessary. Do you wish this one or that one? The Spanish have always smoked 2 since desde the day when those Spanish sailors in the West Indies learned the use of tobacco. The tobacco industry is 4 to-day one of the important industries of Spain, as it is in many other countries.
The tobacco is manufactured under 6 the direction of the government in some countries, and in private factories in others. The latter is true in the United 8 States, but in the continental countries the government owns the factories. The best tobacco for cigars is cultivated in the 10 West Indies, and when one buys a pure Havana cigar one always knows that it is the best that is made. I , habl-aba habl-abas habl-aba I spoke, did speak, was speaking, used to speak, would 3 speak, etc. The imperfect indicative is formed by adding to the stem of the verb the endings -aba, etc. The accent falls through- out on the first vowel of the endings in all three conjugations, 1 From here on cardinal numbers are used, because the ordinals above ten are rarely employed in numbering lessons, chapters, etc.
There are only three verbs that are irregular in the im- perfect indicative. They are: ser, to be: era, eras, era, eramos, erais, eran ir, to go: iba, ibas, iba, ibamos, ibais, iban ver, to see: veia, veias, veia, veiamos, veiais, veian Preterite Perfecto Preterit I I spoke, did speak habl-e habl-aste habl-6 habl-amos habl-asteis habl-aron II deb-i deb-iste deb-io I owed ought , did owe III deb-imos deb-isteis deb-ieron viv-i viv-iste I lived, did live viv-imos viv-isteis viv-io viv-ieron The preterit is formed by adding to the stem of the verb the appropriate endings for the different conjugations.
The endings are the same in the second and third conjugations. The accent falls on the first vowel of the endings throughout, except in -io and -ieron, where it falls on the second. It must be written in the first and third persons singular of all three conjugations.
Verbs whose stem ends in a vowel change i to y in the preterit endings -io and -ieron. Moreover they receive a written accent on the i of the endings -iste, -imos, -isteis. It might be termed the descriptive past tense. Cuando yo estaba en el campo, me When I was in the country, I would levantaba a las cinco used to get up at five o'clock El sol brillaba y los pajaros cantaban The sun shone and the birds sang Yo escribia una carta cuando entro I was writing a letter when my mi hermano brother entered Verbs expressing desire, ability, duty, obligation, thought, knowledge, etc.
Yo queria verle, pero no sabia donde I wanted to see him, but I didn't estaba know where he was The preterit is used to express definite past action not state or condition of long or short duration, provided the idea of action and not duration is emphasized. It might be termed the narrative past tense. The perfect tense, which is composed of the present indicative of haber and a past participle, is often used instead of the preterit to express 1 past action without reference to any particular time, 2 past action that took place recently or in a space of time not yet elapsed.
The parts of a compound tense must not be separated by other words as often in English. Have you read Calderon's works? He comido con amigos hoy I dined with friends to-day He estudiado todo este aiio I have studied all this year Note. It is regularly so used when the event begun in the past is still continuing. If the event is a completed occurrence, a past tense is used. The person in question is no longer thereat Learn the reflexive pronouns cf. Entramos en 2 el hermoso edificio por una gran puerta que esta en la calle de San Fernando.
Una escena muy alegre se nos 3 presento 4 a la vista al 4 entrar. En las inmensas galerias habia mas de 5 mujeres que hacian cigarros y cigarillos. Por las 6 ventanas abiertas el sol iluminaba los pafiuelos de varios colores vistosos que llevaban en los hombros las cigarreras. Algu- nas dirigieron la mirada hacia nosotros.
Yo sabia que se 1 burlaban de mi, pero no me 1 atrevi a decir nada, conociendo bien que no es posible aventa- 14 jar en agudezas a las saladas andaluzas. He was speaking; they used to speak. He had found; we had offered; you had surpassed. We did not go through the factory. I did not know where he was. I spoke to the cigarette maker. The girls made fun of the man who visited the factory. Where were you? I was in the inner court when you called.
A beautiful scene presented itself. We had written the eleventh exercise when the professor entered. That was my mother. He lived with you when you were in Spain, did he not? The sun lit up the room and the family was cheerful. I heard [that] the girls burst out laughing.
I read the article and believed that it was true. They had studied all the lessons and were beginning to a read simple things. His uncle used to be an engineer when he was young. I did not dare to a say anything. The little girl would sing all the day [long]. Those kerchiefs were brilliant, were they not? A friend of mine 2 took me there alii and explained how the cigars and ciga- rettes were made.
It was a very animated scene which pre- 4 sented itself to us 1 on entering. Many of them wore on their shoulders kerchiefs of various brilliant colors which the sun, entering through the 8 open windows, lit up. While we were passing through the galleries, I heard the 10 cigarette makers whispering behind us, and there were some who burst out laughing. They were laughing at me, 4 but I 12 did not dare to a speak to them, for I had heard that one could not outdo the Andalusian women in wit.
Digame V. Que se nos presento a la vista al entrar? II hablar-emos hablar-eis hablar-an deber-e deber-as deber-a I shall will owe, etc. Ill deber-emos deber-eis deber-an vivir-e vivir-as I shall will live, etc. The future indicative is formed by adding to the infini- tive the endings as given above, which are the same for all Spanish verbs, regular and irregular. They are derived from the present indicative of the verb haber, thus, hablar h e, hablar h as, etc. The accent falls on the first vowel of the ending throughout, and is always written, except in the first person plural.
The use of the future indicative in Spanish is practically the same as in English. It expresses both the idea of will or determination and that of simple futurity. In the former sense, however, querer is frequently used. Lo buscare manana I shall look for it to-morrow iVendra usted con nosotros? The present indicative is used instead of the future after si meaning 'if. No se si vivira o no I don't know whether he will live or not Condicional 1 Conditional I I should would speak, etc. II hablar-ia hablar-ias hablar-ia hablar-iamos hablar-iais hablar-ian deber-ia deber-ias deber-ia I should would owe, ought, etc.
Ill vivir-ia I should would live, etc. In this book it has been grouped with the tenses of the indicative and called Condicional by analogy with the French custom. The conditional is formed by adding to the infinitive the endings as given above, which are the same as those of the imperfect indicative of the second and third conjugations. This is true of both regular and irregular verbs. The use of the conditional in Spanish is practically the same as in French. The future may be used in place of the present and the conditional in place of the imperfect, in an independent clause, to denote probability or conjecture.
This is true also of the corresponding compound tenses. Seran las doce It must be about twelve o'clock Habria llegado He must likely have come Ser and estar are regular in the formation of the future and conditional. Haber and tener have the regular endings in the future and conditional. The stems change, however. Haber becomes habr-e, habr-ia. Tener becomes tendr-e, tendr-ia. For all forms of the auxiliary verbs, cf. Querido amigo : — Hoy hemos salido de Sevilla, llegando 2 aqui esta noche. Ya es tarde y por consiguiente no visitare- mos nada hasta mafiana.
Por primera vez me 2 es posible 4 escribirle 3 algo acerca de nuestra visita a Sevilla. Veremos mafiana uno de los mas hermosos, la mezquita de Cordoba con sus mil columnas. We shall speak; they will speak. He would arrive. You would have. He must have passed the door. We shall write more to-morrow. The tower of the palace will be visited on Monday.
He says that he would have arrived this morning. If he arrives, he will visit the ancient monuments. Do you know whether he will live or not? I shall be there with my father and mother. I should write the exercise. Would you write so many pages of Spanish? We shall see something interesting here in Cordova, shall we not? I ought to spend the autumn in this beautiful country, but it will not be possible. He will desire more this time. They believed that the Moorish occupation would last two 1 Cordova, a city of southern Spain.
The engineers will visit England and Spain. I would sell this picture to my friend, but he does not wish [to] buy anything. Dear Friend: — I knew that you would not visit Seville 2 without spending several days there. I was there only two days, and I should like [to] see more of its famous cathedral 4 and its other important monuments. There is always so much that one can see in an ancient country like Spain. Without doubt, you have read the books of Washington Irving. I 8 read some of his descriptions of the Alhambra when I was in Granada.
You should learn something of the gipsies gita- 10 nos of Granada while you are there, for their customs are very interesting. Your good friend, 16 Manuel Heredia. La Alhambra de Washington Irving? The imperative is used in the second person singular and plural, and only in the affirmative. In the first and third persons in affirmative commands and in all persons in negative commands the present subjunctive is used cf.
The forms of the imperative mood of the three regular conjungations are: I II III Singular, 2 a persona habl-a deb-e viv-e Plural, 2 a persona habl-ad deb-ed viv-id The second person singular of the imperative of regular verbs has the same form as the third person singular of the present indicative, and the plural of all imperatives is formed by changing the r of the infinitive to d. Since the imperative is used only in the second person, it is found only where that mode of address is used and will therefore be little employed by a foreigner, who will use rather the third person of the present subjunctive with usted ustedes cf.
Personal pronouns used as objects follow the impera- tive, or the present subjunctive used as an affirmative impera- tive, and are joined to it cf. If the accent is thus thrown before the penult, it must be written cf. The second person plural of the imperative loses its final -d when os is attached, and the first person plural of the present subjunctive loses its final -s when nos is attached.
The infinitive may be used with an imperative force. Be quiet! I habl-e habl-es habl-e I may speak, etc. II habl-emos habl-eis habl-en deb-a deb-as deb-a I may owe, etc. Ill deb-amos deb-ais deb-an viv-a I may live, etc. The present subjunctive is formed by adding to the stem the endings as given above, which are the same for all regular verbs. The accent falls on the last syllable only in the second person plural and is then written.
Las Estaciones del Ano The Seasons of the Year la primavera, spring el otoiio, autumn el verano, summer el invierno, winter Napoles, Naples. Querido amigo : — No creas que te 2 he olvidado, pero desde 2 que llegue 3 a esta en el mes de julio he estado muy ocupado visitando los varios monumentos interesantes de la ciudad.
Te aseguroque quien 4 no ha visto 5 6 Granada no ha visto nada, como dicen aqui. Es una ciudad maravillosa que me gusta mas cada dia que paso en ella. Viven en pequenas cuevas en el Albaicin, 14 barrio que esta en una cuesta al otro lado del Darro. El otro dia un amigo me dijo: Vamos a ver bailar a las gitanas. Pasa al menos el mes de septiembre en esta hermosisima 6 ciudad. Si te 7 es 20 posible venir, escribeme calle de X.
Tu 8 buen amigo, Pedro Velez. Do you like? Me gusta I like Gusta a mi hermano My brother likes, etc. Speak tu ; speak vosotros ; do not speak tu. Write V. Do not owe vosotros. Let us dance. Let them begin. Let us be gay. Travel V. Assist tu your little brother. Enter tu V. February and March are interesting months. Spend VV. Keep the books. Let them end their studies in July.
Do not travel in the month of December, if you are in Spain. I may be; we may write; they may live. Winter is a gay season of the year. February has only 28 days. Give vosotros the pencils to the teacher. Why does he not come in the month of January? Dear Friend: — It would please me very much [to] visit 2 you 1 in Granada. Stay in that interesting city until October and I assure you that I shall spend several days there with you.
I should like very much [to] see them and their lively dances. II deb-iera I might should, would owe, etc. Ill viv-iera I might should, would live, etc. I habl-ase I might should, would speak, etc. II deb-iese I might should, would owe, etc. These subjunctive forms in all verbs, regular or irregu- lar, may be derived readily from the third person plural of the preterit by changing -ron to -ra, -se, or -re.
The first and second forms are generally interchangeable. The future sub- junctive is rarely used. The accent in the two forms of the imperfect subjunc- tive and in the future subjunctive falls on the first strong vowel of the ending in the three conjugations. It is written in the first person plural in all three tenses of the three conjugations.
Verbs of the second or third conjugation whose stem ends in a vowel change i to y in the endings of the imperfect and future subjunctive. The subjunctive is used in dependent clauses very much as in French, though a little more commonly. It is most frequently found in noun clauses after verbs expressing will, emotion or doubt. For a fuller treatment of the subject, cf. They are all of the masculine gender, and frequently take the definite article cf. Pablo, Paul. Buenos dias, 2 Juan. Buenos dias, Pablo. Parece que todo el mundo 2 viaja hoy.
Mi tio, que vive alii, siempre ha deseado que le visitase, y 4 tengo la intencion de pasar una semana con el. El lunes recibi de mi hermano, 6 que esta en Barcelona, una carta rogandome que le visitara lo mas pronto posible, porque del sabado en quince dias 8 saldra 5 de Barcelona para los Estados Unidos. Pero no me voy 3 hasta pasado mafiana. Acabo de comprar mi billete 10 y de facturar mis baiiles.
Yo deseaba que me acompafiase mi primo, pero el tiene que 12 quedarse en Madrid hasta el viernes proximo, y por con- siguiente no le ha sido posible acompafiarme. Pero ya se 14 abre la ventanilla. Dispenseme V. Un billete de primera de ida y vuelta para Burgos. Creo que esperare el tren en el anden, porque hay muchisima gente en la sala de espera.
I might speak; he might speak; they might speak. We might owe; they would live; they should owe. He wished them to open the ticket window. They desired him to accompany his friends to the station. Next Wednesday I shall be in Burgos. A week ago last Saturday my trunks arrived. They stayed in the city until last night. Did they want the professor to write a book? Yes, they wanted him to begin to-day. Two weeks from Thursday will be the last day. We have com- position lessons every Monday and sometimes on Tuesday.
The day before yesterday was Sunday. Is this round trip ticket good valido until to-morrow? Excuse me, but I intend to de remain until to-morrow morning. I went fui with him, because I wanted 2 [to] learn something more about Spanish stations. First he bought his ticket to Burgos at the ticket window, while 4 I remained in the waiting room.
Then entonces he told me to buy a platform ticket while he had his trunk 6 checked. I was surprised that one should need a ticket to para go out on the platform. Then I helped him to a 8 carry his suit-cases to the platform, and we talked until the train arrived. I intend to de go to Barcelona next 10 week, and knowing how el saber [to] have my trunks checked and where [to] buy my ticket ought [to] aid me very 12 much. Time after the hour is expressed by the number of minutes preceded by y, and time before, by the number of minutes preceded by menos, 'less.
The verb 'to be' in expressions of time is ser, which is singular or plural according to the number of hours. I Que hora es? Es la una It is one o'clock Son las dos y veinte It is twenty minutes past two Son las once menos diez It is ten minutes to eleven Other means of expressing time may be inferred from the following examples: Son las doce y cuarto a las siete en punto a las diez de la manana a las dos de la tarde al mediodia por la manana por la tarde por la noche a media noche It is a quarter past twelve at seven o'clock sharp at ten in the morning at two in the afternoon at noon in the morning in the afternoon at night at midnight , Los Puntos Cardinales The Points of the Compass el norte, the North el sur, the South el este, the East el oeste, the West Antigua- mente habia muchisimas clases de relojes para indicar la hora del dia, como relojes de arena, de agua, de sol, etcetera.
Hoy dia hay varias clases de cronometros, pero entre todos el mas usado es el reloj de bolsillo. Aqui tenemos un reloj. La mas larga 8 de las manecillas se llama el minutero, yla mas corta,el hora- rio. Hay algunos relojes que tienen otra manecilla pequenita 10 para marcar los segundos.
La posicion de las manecillas indica la hora del dia. El minutero marca la hora cuando llega al 12 numero doce, y se puede decir son las tres, son las cinco, etcetera, segun el caso. Cuando llega al numero tres 14 o al numero nueve el minutero, indica los cuartos de hora, y entonces se puede decir son las dos y media, o son las 16 diez menos cuarto, segun el caso.
El reloj marca las doce dos veces en el dia, al mediodia y a media noche. Cuando 18 el reloj no esta en hora l se dice que adelanta o atrasa, y en- tonces es preciso regularizarlo. Por la manana y por la tarde se trabaja, y por la 22 noche se duerme. It is half past two; it is one o'clock; it is a quarter to four.
In the afternoon at two o'clock. He had finished the last lesson at noon. People do not work at night. He had a watch which used to strike the hour. What kind of timepiece generally strikes the hour? I shall have my watch to-morrow. He would have regulated the watch. Es bonito saber que Dios nos ama, pero saber que nos recuerda es hermoso. Otoniel Font —Nuestros Mejores Momentos junio 7, Casa de Dios — La mano que provee junio 7, Descubrirlo de esa forma te hace comprender muchas cosas.
Venga tu Reino — Ministrando el alma junio 6, Diane Meza ministra con musica. Mira esta parte de la entrevista, y mantente conectado con nosotros todo este mes en que estaremos festejando y orando. Vida de Fe —El poder de aplicar la sangre de Cristo Parte 4 junio 5, Tu parte es aplicar la sangre de Cristo y la parte de Dios es actuar, proteger y cuidarte en todo momento.
Full text of "Gramática castellana abreviada. Abridged Spanish grammar"
Venga Tu Reino — La madurez del Cristiano junio 5, Platicamos con Erick Porta y nos cuenta como se llega a la madurez en el ministerio. Todo Es Posible — Entrena tu alma junio 5, Casa de Dios — Reconociendo su mano junio 5, Si bien las naciones y las nacionalidades son importantes, ellas no son eternas.
Mateo No de este mundo julio 3, Es probable que usted haya escuchado a la gente preguntarse lo mismo. Un ejemplo del amor de Dios julio 2, El inquebrantable amor de Dios julio 1, Efesios 2. Hechos 8. La batalla de la fe junio 29, Algunas veces, la fe se siente como una batalla. El fundamento de la fe junio 28, Entonces ponemos un nuevo fundamento en. El toque que transforma junio 27, Mateo 8. El fundamento firme junio 26, Lo que no puede ser alterado junio 25, En general, a la gente le gusta sentirse segura, pero la realidad de nuestro mundo es que hay mucha inseguridad.
Hebreos Cristo y nuestras necesidades junio 24, Hebreos 4. Dios conoce nuestras necesidades junio 23, Filipenses 4. Una de las preocupaciones que escucho a menudo de los creyentes, es el temor de que Dios no los haya perdonado. Filipenses 1. Lucas 6. Compartir las buenas nuevas junio 19, Romanos Creo que los. Juan Recordando victorias pasadas junio 17, Los requisitos para servir a Cristo junio 17, Lucas Cristo vino a servir. Deuteronomio 6. Unidad en el Cuerpo junio 15, Efesios 4. El origen de las necesidades insatisfechas junio 13, Romanos 5.
Como creyentes en Jesucristo, hemos sido invitados a pedirle a Dios lo que necesitemos. Mateo 6. La cura contra el sentimiento de inferioridad junio 11, El mundo nos bombardea con mensajes que pueden desencadenar sentimientos de inferioridad. Efesios 3. Si no nos protegemos del consumismo, alejaremos la verdad de. Los sentimientos de inferioridad junio 10, Advertencia contra la deriva espiritual junio 9, Hebreos 2. Lo que se requiere para ser salvo junio 8, 9.
Tito 3. El reconfortante amor de Dios junio 7, Romanos 8. En las Sagradas Escrituras, aprendemos que el Creador nos hizo a su imagen, y tiene un. Filipenses 3. Ya que Dios el Padre le dio la enorme responsabilidad de guiar. Podcast Voces de influencia. Una historia que incluye a un principe y una princesa. Conoce en este episodio la historia de Joshua Ogaldez la persona que le da vida a este Podcast.
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Vivencias — Jorge Torres Nilo Parte 2 octubre 7, Torres Nilo futbolista profesional lo relata. Temas Populares.