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Historical Context of 'Persepolis'

Joseph Plumb Cochran , an American physician fluent in Persian, Turkish, Kurdish and Assyrian, died at Urmia in northwestern Iran in , over 10, people attended his funeral. This image clashes with most American stereotypes of Iran and its people, and is at odds with decades of anti-Iranian sentiment emanating from Washington. President Trump returns the sentiment , recently threatening Iran with death and destruction.

Imperial bad guys

But before all that happened, when Americans were the good guys, there were other countries who were instead reviled by Iran. The bad guys, at whose hands Iran suffered most, were Russia and Great Britain.

America the good

After two ill-judged wars fought against Russia — the First and Second Russo-Persian Wars — Persia the name Iran was officially adopted in lost large amounts of territory to the Czar. Much later, Russia found another means of exerting control over the Persian crown, loaning millions of rubles to its rulers, like Mozaffar ed-Din Shah, who reigned from and needed capital to fund his lavish lifestyle.

With the exception of the Anglo-Persian War , Persian relations with Great Britain were less openly hostile. But what they lacked in martial vigor was more than compensated for by economic exploitation. Towards the end of the 19th century, the shah granted exclusive concessions to the British for everything from telegraph lines to tobacco. So assured were Britain and Russia in their control of Persia that, in , they signed the infamous Anglo-Russian Convention. After it became public it provoked the outrage of ordinary Persians and the international community at large.

The 19th- and early 20th-century history of British and Russian imperial ambitions and involvement in Iran put Iran in a dependent, exploited position at the hands of the governments of these two countries. But the presence in Iran of American missionaries and, later, invited government technocrats was of an entirely different quality.

Trump says war will mean 'official end of Iran,' warns 'never threaten the United States again'

These were Americans offering aid, with no expectation of advantage to be gained officially for the United States government. American Presbyterian missionary efforts in Iran began in and focused on education, with schools established around Urmia by Efforts were also directed at medical and social welfare. These were nongovernmental missions. The U.

By the late 19th century, the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions had opened new stations in cities across northern Iran , from Tehran to Mashhad. American diplomatic relations with Persia were established in After the First World War, Presbyterian schools for both boys and girls proliferated, the most famous of which were the American College of Tehran for boys, established in , and Iran Bethel School for girls.

Despite Russian attempts to block the initiative , W. Morgan Shuster , a distinguished career civil servant, was appointed by Persia in February He arrived in Tehran in May, bringing with him four other Americans. The mission was a failure, lasting only eight months, and, unsurprisingly, was adroitly sabotaged by the combined efforts of British and Russian diplomats in Tehran. With none of the colonialist baggage associated with the two European superpowers, America was turned to, almost as a last resort, to fix what ailed Iran.

Riza Shah father of the last shah appointed an American, Arthur C. Millspaugh , as the administrator-general of the finances of Persia. If you fail, the patient will die. While Pelosi said that lawmakers left the White House Thursday "with the idea that the president was going to consider some options," she gave no indication that she believed a strike would take place. He also cast doubt on Trump's suggestion that he was in the dark about the potential death toll of the assault he approved until the last minute.

History of Iran - Wikipedia

Democrats — especially those running for president — were quick to condemn Trump for authorizing the strike to begin with, and blamed the president for getting into such a tight spot with Iran. Kirsten Gillibrand D-N. You need to understand what escalation could occur. And you need to have a plan for it. Cory Booker D-N. But other Republicans, such as Rep.

Adam Kinzinger R-Ill. I mean you look at some of the talk about Venezuela and then backing away on that. But if there's not, it will send the message that the red line may not be so red. Skip to Main Content. Continue to article content.